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Insert the right preposition (at, for, against, above, from, into, on). 1. Modern civil law systems derive the legal practice of the Roman Empire.

1. Modern civil law systems derive …the legal practice of the Roman Empire.

2. Critics of the amendment base their position … the following points.

3. The book is divided … six sections.

4. Andrew is studying law … Harvard University.

5. Many ministers seem to regard themselves as … the law.

6. It's … the law to be drunk in public.

7. Most Americans rely … television as their chief source … information.

8. The new constitution provides … a 650-seat legislature.

5. Translate the following sentences into English:

1.Після тривалого обговорення депутати вирішили призначити комісію, яка має розробити поправки до закону. 2.Згідно з доктриною прецеденту, рішення, прийняте судом у справі, обґрунтування якого вважається нормою, є обов’язковим для інших судів при вирішенні аналогічних справ. 3.У сучасних правових системах Європи та Америки більшість правових інститутів походять з правової практики Римської імперії. 4.Поки всі намагання адвоката вирішити спір та досягти примирення були марними. 5.Джерелом релігійного права є Бог, тому навіть уряд не може заборонити дію релігійних законів.


Mind the use of articles with geographical names. Put the objects in the box into the correct column in the chart. Give examples for each place.

continents groups of islands single islands republics or unions of states countries oceans or seas lakes rivers single mountains mountain ranges cities / towns roads / streets



with the without the


2. Some of these sentences are correct, but some need “the”. Correct the sentences where necessary. Put ‘RIGHT’ if the sentence is already correct.

1. Ben was born in Netherlands, but now he lives in Switzerland.

2. ‘I’d love to do a tour of European capitals and visit Paris, London and the Hague.’ ‘The Dutch government is in the Hague, but the capital city is Amsterdam.’

3. I’ve been to Brazil and Argentina, but I’ve never been to the People’s Republic of China.

4. United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

5. Spain is a country in southwest Europe, between France and Portugal.

6. Before it became part of US in 1845, Texas was briefly an independent country.

7. Seychelles are a group of islands in Indian Ocean.

8. Suez Canal joins the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea.

9. Himalayas include the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest.


1. Characterize the four abovementioned legal systems on the basis of the following criteria: the sources of law, specific features of the legal system, spreading. Can you think of any other types of legal systems?

Imagine you are a politician just before an election. Prepare a speech lasting about two minutes stating your plans and intentions for making improvements in keeping law and order in Ukraine. Take turns to give your speech.

Unit 1 Systems of Law Section 2 Law and Society  


1. Answer the following questions

    1. What did Martin Luther King imply when he said “Never forget that everything Hitler did in Germany was legal.”?
    2. “Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws.” Plato. Do you agree with this statement?

2. Match the following English words and phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

to reject a справа  
embodiment b нехтувати  
Transaction c втілення  
framework d чесна гра
inherent e рамки
fair play f притаманний
wisdom g схвалення
approval h нероздільний
inseparable i існування
existence j мудрість


Read the text “What is Law?” and give your own definition of this notion.


Although “the law” may seem to be abstract and far removed from everyday life, it actually is a framework for much of what you do. Perhaps you get a traffic ticket or want a local store to replace a defective toaster you bought. Perhaps you must testify as a witness to an accident or want to stop a road-widening project near your home. Each of these scenarios involves the law. What is law? You can surely find various definitions of it, because scholars investigate the nature of law through many perspectives, including legal history and philosophy, or social sciences such as economics and sociology. The study of law raises important questions about equality, fairness and justice, which are not always simple. However in the broadest terms, law is the set of rules that guides our conduct in societyand is enforceable through public institutions. The most important institutions for law are the judiciary, the legislature, the executive, its bureaucracy, the military and police, the legal profession and civil society.

Our relations with one another are governed by many rules of conduct – from important concepts of ethics and fair play to minor etiquette matters such as which fork to use and how to introduce strangers to one another. We obey these rules because we think they are right or simply because we desire the approval of others. If we do not follow these rules, others may treat us differently – from giving us a disapproving look to completely rejecting us.

The history of law is the history of our race, and the embodiment of its experience. It is the monument of its wisdom and of its frequent want of wisdom. The best thought of a people is to be found in its legislation; its daily life is best mirrored in its customs and traditions, which constitute the law of its ordinary transactions.

There never has existed, and there never will exist, on this planet any organization of human society, any tribe or nation that has not been more or less controlled by some recognized form of law.

The recognition of the existence of law is inherent in man's nature, and is a necessity of his being. While all true philosophy recognizes that society exists for the individual, and not the individual for society, yet it is also true that the individual is intended to exist in society, and that he must in many things subordinate his own will to that of society, since society cannot exist without law. Thus the existence of law is inseparable from that of the human race.

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