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Discuss what music styles you prefer and why.


The Blues are called "roots music"(Музыка, уходящая корнями в прошлое). The blues arose in the USA sometime after the Civil War as a mixture of the African music brought over by slaves, ballads, church music, and rhythmic dance tunes. So, the basic vocabulary of rock is the blues.

Rythmth and Blues (R’n’B)a mixture of black religious music (gospel) and jazz.

Countrythe music of America’s heartland (главных, основанных первыми американских штатов). It can be traced back to British immigrants who brought with them a tradition of Celtic ballads and string instruments. Nashville, Tennessee, became the centre of country music by the 1930s. Many rockabilly singers returned to country roots, like Aerosmith.

Rockabillywas Elvis Presley's music, a lively hybrid of blues and country that became rock'n'roll. Every generation of rockers has revived and rediscovered rockabilly.

Rock'n'Rollwas the earliest and usually simpler form of rock music which appeared in the early 1950s in the USA. It is based on electric guitar and drums. Instead of playing pop music, disc jockey (DJ) Alan Freed started playing the rhythm and blues music derived from jazz and country. The impact of The Beatles (formed in 1959 in Liverpool) on rock'n'roll is incalculable. The Rolling Stones began calling themselves the "World's Greatest Rock'n'Roll Band" in the late 1960s, and few disputed the claim.

JazzAmerica's most important and original contribution to world culture. It is music that depends primarily on improvisation, freedom and swing. The first music known as jazz was the New Orleans style (later known as Dixieland), in which a small group would collectively improvise on a well-known tune.

Swingjazz style music popular in 1930s-40s. A big-band sound with a simple harmonic base of varying tempo from the rhythm section (percussion, guitar, piano), harmonic brass and some­times strings, to solo melodic line (e.g. saxophone). Duke Ellington and Glen Miller intro­duced jazz to a mass white audience.

Funkbass-driven, percussive polyrhythmic black dance music, with minimal melody and maximum syncopation. It has developed since the 1960s and with some simplification of its rhythms, funk provided the basis for disco and became a cornerstone of hip-hop, rap, and every other black-inspired and dance genre to emerge since.

Discoa type of soft rock music for dancing. Being a representative of disco; ABBA was one of the most commercially successful groups of the 1970s.

Soula type of modern black American music, derived from gospel, blues and jazz. It has funk

rhythms and expresses strong emotions. "Soul" is also a black slang term for sincerity. Tony Braxton is a representative of soul.

Reggae a type of West Indian popular music and dance with strong rhythms that derived from Afro-Caribbean music and American R'n'B. It has flourished in Jamaica since the early 1960s. Reggae is based on a specific Jamaican beat known as "ska". The most influencial ska musicians were Rastrafarians (Растрафари) who incorporated ritual "burra" drumming and chanting (Включили ритуальную игру на барабанах и песнопение) into their music, while their lyrics quoted (Тексты песен цитировали) Rasta scripture (священное писание Растрафари). Bob Marley was one of the founders of this musical style.

Acid (Psychedelic) Rockhas intensely vivid sounds like those experienced while hallucinating. It usually involves advanced electronic equipment. Pink Floyd, formed in 1965, is the most prominent representative of acid rock with their biggest hit Dark Side of the Moon, 1973.

Pomp Rockwas developed by Queen. It is characterized by stage set-ups (особые сценические устройства), smoke bombs, and flashpots. Queen's sound combined showy opera-like glam rock, heavy metal, and vocal harmonies produced by multitracking Mercury's voice. Brian May's guitar was thickly overdubbed (dub - "дa6" – прием, который сводится к редактированию фонограммы).

Heavy Metalheavily amplified (пропущенный через усилители звука), blues-based, electric guitar-driven rock that came of age during the early seventies. The representatives are Led Zeppelin, Iron Maiden, Metallica.

Punk Rocka type of loud and violent rock music popular since the late 1970s. It is associated with protest against conventional attitudes. Punk's fashion statements are wearing safety pins, spiked hair, and black leather jackets. Punk fans introduced the pogo dance. Most punk groups put forward their nihilistic slogan "No future", while there were also rebels with a cause (В то время как были и бунтовщики приследующие определенные цели ), from anti-Thatcherism to calls for racial unity (От выступлений против политики премьер-министра Магарет Тэтчер до поддержки рассового единства). Punk groups are The Sex Pistols, The Jam, The Clash.

Hardcoreis a louder and faster form of punk rock that appeared on the US West Coast in the early 80s. It is characterized by despairing, nihilistic lyrics screamed from a chaotic din (из хаотичного шума) of rapidly changing guitar chords. Hardcore kids wear tattoos, buzz cuts and combat boots. They originated slam dancing, or "moshing", in which members of the mostly white and male audiences would form small pits in front of bands and smash into one another as the music played (нарочно сталкиваются друг с другом под музыку). Stage diving (прыжки со сцены) by audience members into the mosh pit was a common occurrence. Two West Coast proto-hardcore bands were the Los Angeles-based groups Germs and Black Flag. "Real" hardcore skinheads tried to distance themselves from racist ones in 1981. But by the mid-eighties, hardcore had begun to play itself out, splittering into trash and speed metal. New wave is pop with punkish tappings, such as faster tempos. It is a catch-all term (всеобъемлющий расхожий термин) for bands that emerged (возникли) after 1976 and could not be characterized as pure punk. As MTV began defining the mainstream, successful new-wave acts, such as Duran Duran and The Police, became widely popular.

Grunge (extremely dirty)a postpunk hard-rock subgenre of the "alternative" movement. It first ap­peared in Seattle with Nirvana's 1992 chart-topper (хит, занимающий верхние строки в чартах), Smells Like Teen Spirit. Grunge bands were influenced equally by punk rock and by such hard-rock bands as Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, AC/DC, and Kiss. The Grunge "look" is characterized by untucked plaid-flannel shirts (незаправленные в брюки фланелевые рубахи), stocking caps, and moth-eaten sweaters. Female hardcore punk, or "foxcore", bands such as L7, Hole (whose frontwoman, Courtney Love, married Nirvana V Kurt Cobain) are also identified with the grunge scene.

Rapis a form of dance music in which vocalists - rappers - speak in rhythm and rhyme. Rapping

is a specialized style originated in the mid-seventies in the discos of New York. City's black neighborhoods, alongside such ghetto arts as freedom writing (graffiti) and break dancing. It was developed by DJs. The progenitors of rap were spinners - disco DJs (прародителями рэпа были спиннеры – диск жокеи) who segued songs for dancers. Initially the role of a rapper was to keep the beat going with handclasp while the spinner changed records. Rap­pers developed specific lines of lyrics, slogans, and call-and-response exchanges with the audience. The first rap records were not made until 1979, most of them for small independent labels called indies (пластинки независимых студий звукозаписи). Today the best-known rappers are Eminem and Nelly who got American Music Awards in 2003.

Hip-hopthe backing music for rap, a street-derived, avant-garde art form that is linked with the com­mercial rise of rap in the early eighties. Hip-hop is used to describe rap culture, break danc­ing, graffiti and the specific music. Hip-hop tracks combine "found sounds" (often digitally recorded samples of music, voices, or ambient noise), looped drum tracks (either natu­ral or electronic), bass lines, guitar riffs, manipulations that produce the music's back­ward, scratching, and stuttering effects (движение пластинки руками в обратном направлении, воспроизведение царапанья или заикания на пластинке ). In 1987, The Bomb Squard, a hip-hop team, introduced a hard, noisy, dense, highly influencial sound that combined sirens, political speeches, and music samples. Hip-hop is like postmodern visual art: it combines bits and pieces of art and media from different eras into a whole.

Techno a computer generated dance music style that combines the big beat of disco and rapid-fire intensity of punk. Its artists are DJs who use digital samplers and sequencers to combine some found sounds (fragments of prerecorded songs, drumbeats, whistles, television chatter, etc). This repetitive, chaotic, ear-splitting, nervous, soulless music developed at all-night underground psychedelic parties fuelled by the hallucinogenic stimulant Ecstasy. Developed in Detroit, techno had reached a large cult audience by the early 1990s when the major labels (ведущие студии звукозаписи) began promoting Moby, the Orb, and Messiah. Despite the music's success, most techno artists prefer to remain anonymous, DJing in the darkness of the rave milieu (в среде рейверских дискотек) behind spiderwebs of wires and computer equipment, and often recording on vinyl records with plain white labels. Sometimes techno DJs perform and record the music variations under different pseudonyms. One of these techno variations is known as the Chicago-born “house” style (стиль “хаус”)


There are some common endings for adjectives formed from nouns and verbs. These are:

- able comfortable - ent dependent - ical historical - like business

- al accidental - esque picturesque - ious victorious - ly friendly

- ant dominant - ful careful - ish childish - ory compulsory

- ar popular - ian Italian - ist fascist - ous dangerous

- ary imaginary - ible horrible - ive attractive - some wholesome

- ate passionate - ic historic - less careless - y lucky

Activity I. Fill in an appropriate adjective derived from the nouns or verbs (see the text above).

percussion - удар percussive___ ударный

origin - происхождение ____________ подлинный

success - ycnex ____________ успешный

convention - обычай ____________ традиционный

harmony - гармония ____________ гармонический

electron - электрон ____________ электронный

influence - влияние ____________ влиятельный

politics - политика ____________ политический

race – paca ____________ расистский

soul - душа ____________ бездушный

punk - панк ____________ панковый

commerce - торговля ____________ коммерческий

nature - природа ____________ естественный

Anonym – аноним ____________ анонимный

Nerve – нерв ____________ нервный

Opera – опера ____________ похожий на оперу

To live – жить ____________ живой

To vary – отличатся ____________ разнообразный

To know – знать ____________ известный

To change – меняться ____________ меняющийся

To advance – продвигать ____________ передовой

To alternate – чередовать ____________ альтернативный

To tuck – заправлять ____________ незаправленный

To repeat – повторять ____________ повторяющийся

To calculate – считать ____________ неисчислимый

NOTE: There are also compound adjectives, which are formed with:

a) present participles: a time-consumingtask, a never-endingstory

b) past participles: worn-outshoes, a broken-down car

c) cardinal numbers + nouns: a two-dayseminar (not: a two-days seminar), a three-weekholiday

d) well, badly, ill, poorly + past participle: a well-paid job, a poorly-paidworker, an ill-chosenremark

Activity II. Fill in the appropriate compound adjective derived from the following words (see the text above):Chicago, black, night, street, six, well, electric guitar, splitting, based, eaten, born, derived, moth, driven, ear, Los Angeles, all, inspired, minute, known.

__________________________________рожденный в Чикаго

__________________________________ знаменитый

__________________________________ оглушающий

__________________________________ вдохновленный музыкой чернокожих

__________________________________ длящийся всю ночь напролет

__________________________________ ведомый электрогитарой

__________________________________ шестиминутный

__________________________________ расположенный в Лос-Анджелесе

__________________________________ изъеденный молью

__________________________________ пришедший к нам с улиц

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