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Stylistics as a science. Branches of stylistics.
Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics. Comparative stylistics is a sub.eld of stylistics that attempts to account for the differences in style between languages. Stylistics – is regarded as a lang-ge science which deals with the results of the act of communication. The object of stylistic analysis is the language in the process of its usage.
There are 2 basic objects of stylistics:
- stylistic devices and figures of speech
- functional styles
- special linguistic means which secure the desirable effect of the utterance;
- certain types of texts “discourse” which due to the choice and arrangement of the language are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of communication.
The subject of stylistics can be outlined as the study of the nature, functions and structure of stylistic devices on the one hand and on the other the study of each style of language, its aim, its structure, its characteristic features and the effect it produces, as well as its interrelation with other styles of language.
English language as being divided into three main layers: the literary layer, the neutral layer and the colloquial layer. The literary and the colloquial layers contain a number of subgroups each of which has a property it shares with all the subgroups within the layer. This common property, which unites the different groups of words within the layer may be called its aspect. The aspect of the literary layer is its markedly bookish character. It is this that makes the layer more or less stable. The aspect of the colloquial layer of words is its lively spoken character. It is this that makes it unstable, fleeting.
2. Dwell on the stylistic differentiation of the English and Ukrainian vocabulary.
The vocabulary of the English language consists of three main layers, literary, neutral, and collegial. Literary layer maybe subdivided into common literary words, terms, poetic words, archaic words, barbarism and foreign words, neologisms. Within the collegial vocabulary we distinguish: common collegial words slang jargons, professional words, dialectical words, vulgar words. The neutral layer can be found both in the literary and collegial vocabulary and has no stylistic coloring common literary words have a neutral character to begin, to eat, child, food, money, and prison. Terms – are words denoting nations of special fields of knowledge. Ex: linguistics phoneme, amplitude, anode, electron pain, and antibiotic. Archaic words are those which are not used now, expect special purposes thee, thy, hath (has) makert (make), whay (no). Barbarisms are words, which came into the English vocabulary from other languages and have retained their spelling in pronunciation. In many cases they have English synonyms chic (stylish), bon mot (a clever saying) adieu (good buy). Another group of barbarisms are foreign words, easy to recognize through spelling: en blena (well) voila (there you are) c`estca (that’s it) allez (come on). The stylistic function of barbarisms and foreign words is to create local coloring.
Neologism appear when there is the need to express new ideas and nations. They are produced in accordance with the existing word – building models of the English language.
Professions may not understand the jargons. Exam (examination), maths (mathematics), prof (profession), a big gun (an important person), a sewing machine (machine gun), an egg (an inexperienced aviator).
Professional words are the words used in certain spheres of human activity, mining industry: picks, (parts of mining device, tool) remote (a distant drift) sea: tin – fish (submarine) sparks (radior operator).
The function of the professionalism are different to characterize the speech of a person, to make, the description more realistic and precise. Dialectical words are such words that are connected with a certain area on region. Ex: a lass (a girl or beloved) a lad (a boy or young man) daft (unsound, silly) all of them belong to Scottish dialect and: volk (folk, zee (see) – Southern dialect. Irish: nurley – (hockey), colcen – (girl). Vulgar words – are words market by coarseness of speech or expression they or offensive, indecent.
The vocabulary of Uk. language is stylistically various. According to the sphere of usage we distinguish 2 groups of words: stylistically neutral vocabulary, stylistically marked vocabulary. The latter in its turn splits into bookish (scientific, official, newspaper-publicistic) and colloquial. Stylistically neutral V.: words which are not fixed to some style. It can be used everywhere: in books or magazine, at the conference or meeting, in works of art or in a private letter. Neutral words can name concrete objects, phenomena, abstract notions, features of objects, action. Neutral words constitute the basis of uk. language’s V. They dominate in a text of any style. Bookish V.: words which are used mostly in written types of literary language. Most of them belong to foreign V. or have borrowed stems. Bookish V. can be subdivided into scientific, business-official, newspaper-publicistic. In lexical system of scientific style one singles out so-called general-scientific V used in any of scientific sphere: research, hypothesis, condition, interpretation. Business-official V. prevails in official documents. The main groups of such V. are the names of official papers – statement, instruction, report, explanatory note, record of proceedings; nomenclature names (names of institutions, officials, ministry, Prosecutor-General). Newspaper-publicistic V: 1) social-political V – democracy, publicity, tolerance. 2) the words which have some solemnity, ponderability, inspiration, immortality, grandeur. Colloquial V. is the third stylistic layer of ukr. V. These are the words which have lower (in comparison with neutral V.) stylistic colouring and are used in oral types of language – natural conversation, everyday communication. For example: chatterbox - базіка, heavy hammer - балда, disorder - гармидер, aslant - набакир, hateful - осоружний, tufts of hair - патли, hiding – прочухан. Colloquial words give the language unofficial sounding, so they are inadmissible for business-official and scientific styles however they can be used in publicism and fiction.
3. Speak on the functional styles of the English and Ukrainian.
A Functional style of language is a system of interrelated language means, which serves a definite aim in communication. Functional styles appear mainly in the literary language. In the English literary language we distinguish the following major Functional Styles (FS).
The language of belle lettre худож-ная проза. The language of publicistic literatures. The language of newspapers. The language of scientific prose.The language of official documents.
Each FS may be characterized by a number of distinctive features and each FS maybe subdivided into a number of sub styles. For example, the belle letre style has the following sub styles: The language style of poetry. The language style of emotive prose. The language style of drama.The most important feature of the poetic style is imagery, which gives rich additional information. This information is created by specific use of words and expressions. This information is to be conveyed through images. The language style of drama is entirely dialogues, but it is not the exact reproduction of oral speech.
Publicistic style of language also may be divided into three sub styles: Oratorical substyle. Radio and TV substyle. Essays the language style of articles. Publicistic style has features in common, with style scientific prose and at the same time has features in common with the emotive prose. The essay. The most characteristic language features of the essay are as follows: 1. The prorate of expression. 2. The use of first person singular. 3. Expanded use of connectives. 4. Abundant use of emotive words.
Newspaper style. The English newspaper style may be defined as a system of lexical, phraseological, grammatical means, aimed at serving the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. In the English newspapers the information is conveyed in the form of Brief new items. Information articles. Press reports. Advertisements, announcements.
Scientific prose style. In the scientific prose style maybe subdivided into the following substyles: The language of business documents. The language of legal documents. The language of diplomacy. The language of military documents.
Highly-developed modern literary ukr. language has ramified system of styles: colloquial, artistic, scientific and publicistic. All styles have oral and written forms. Colloquial style. The sphere of usage – oral everyday communication in a family life, in manufacturing. The main aim – to be a mean of influence and natural intercourse, exchange of ideas, feelings, judgements, clarification of industrial and everyday relations. Artistic style: This is the greatest and the most powerful style of ukr. language. Artistic style is widely used in creative activity, different types of art, in culture and education. With the exception of informative function this type of style also performs the most essential – aesthetic: to have an influence by means of artistic word through the system of images on mind, feeling, to form ideological convictions, moral qualities and aesthetic tastes. The major features: the most important feature – imagery, poetical painting, the aesthetics of communication, expression as intensity of expressing (solemn, polite, sweet, gentle, familiar, joyful, rough). Scientific style. The sphere of usage – scientific activity, education.The main goal – giving data about a person, society, phenomena of a nature, argumentation of hypothesis, classification of knowledge. The main features: clearness of concepts, logical order, generalization of concepts and phenomena, objective analysis, argumentation and persuasiveness of affirmations, detailed conclusions. Publicistic style The sphere of usage: public-political, social-manufacturing, cultural-educational activity, education. The main purposes: with a help of informational-propagandistic methods to solve important, actual, social-political problems.active influence upon a reader, propaganda of certain ideas, convictions, theories and active agitation. The main features: accessibility of language and formation (orientation for the public at large).combination of logical arguments and polemical summary, presence of set of bright means of positive or negative author’s interpretation, which wears mostly tendentious character, wide usage of artistic devices (epithets, similes, metaphors, hyberboles).
4. Speak on basic sound effects and their stylistic value: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance.