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Words pertaining to religion; words connected with learning.




orgel organ; papa pope; regol religious rule;

 

15. Word meaning: the problem of definition, referential and functional approaches to meaning.

Every word has two aspects: the outer aspect (its sound form) and the inner aspect (its meaning). Sound and meaning do not always constitute a constant unit even in the same language. E.g. the word temple may denote a part of a human head and a large church In such cases we have homonyms. One and the same word in different syntactical relations can develop different meanings.

On the other hand, one and the same meaning can be expressed by different sound forms, e.g. pilot , and airman, horror and terror. In such cases we have synonyms.

Syntagmatics linear (simultaneous) relationship of words in speech as distinct from associative (non-simultaneous) relationship of words in language.

Paradigmatics 1) associative (non-simultaneous) relationship of words in language as distinct from linear (simultaneous) relationship of words in speech (syntagmatics); relation of units in absentia (e.g. synonymic, antonymic relationships.

Simple words consist of one root morpheme and an inflexion (in many cases the inflexion is zero), e.g. seldom, chairs, longer, asked.

Derived words consist of one root morpheme, one or several affixes and an inlexion, e.g. deristricted, unemployed.

Compound words consist of two or more root morphemes and an inflexion, e.g. baby-moons, wait-and-see (policy).

Compound-derived words consist of two or more root morphemes, one or more affixes and an inflexion, e.g. middle-of-the-roaders, job-hopper.

When speaking about the structure of words stems also should be mentioned. The stem is the part of the word which remains unchanged throughout the paradigm of the word, e.g. the stem hop can be found in the words: hop, hops, hopped, hopping. So stems, the same as words, can be simple, derived, compound and compound-derived. Stems have not only the lexical meaning but also grammatical (part-of-speech) meaning, they can be noun stems (girl in the adjective girlish), adjective stems (girlish in the noun girlishness), verb stems (expell in the noun expellee) etc.

Platos work: words are names or labels for things. Aristotle: the smallest significant unit of speech. Modern linguists: Referential approach (psychological). The model is the result of attempts to find relations between words and things. Symbol- word. Referent- thing. Reference- meaning.

Sometimes its easy to understand the meaning of a words and its parts. S. Ullman distinguishes between transparent and opaque words. T. words are always motivated. O. words are conventional words. This distinguish goes back to the Greeks.

Motivation is the relationship existing between the phonemes or morphemic composition ans structural pattern of a word on the one hand and its meaning oh the other hand.

3 types of M.: 1.phonetical; 2.morphological; 3.semantic

When there use a certain similarity between the sounds of a word and the sounds referred to by the meaning of a word phonetical. Morphological- its possible to guess the meaning of a word from its parts. (in newly coined words) Semantic motivation is based on the coexistence of direct and figurative meaning of the same word. Foot- a lower part of smth; part of a body. The foot of the mountain. Each word has a hard core of meaning, which stable, but cant be modified by the context within certain limits. 2 types of context: linguistic (verbal); extralinguistic







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