|Главная Случайная страница
Modern scholars estimate the percentage of borrowed words in the English vocabulary at 65—70 per cent which is an exceptionally high figure.
20. Dwell on history and morphological classification of parts of speech in eng and ukr
The history of linguistic categorization of parts of speech in Europe begins with Plato who considered some language-related philosophical questions: why a dog is called a dog and not a cat. Some attention is devoted to analyzing a sentence into two major components - the nominal one (onoma) and the verbal one (rheme). Thus, Plato approached the problem of "noun-verb" distinction in terms of "subject" versus "predicate". Since Plato's focus was purely syntactic (i.e. based on sentential analysis), Platonic "nouns" and "verbs" do not exactly correspond to nouns and verbs as these are conceived nowadays.
Aristotle added a further distinct class of "conjunctions" (covering conjunctions, pronouns and the article) to the Platonic system. This class included all those words which were neither nouns nor verbs but which served to combine nouns and verbs. Aristotle included adjectives among the "verbs". The inflectional criterion was not yet at play. Both for Plato and Aristotle, parts of speech were unambiguously parts of sentences: words became nouns or verbs only when they were put into sentences, outside of a sentence they had no categorical affiliations.
“Parts of speech” are the basic types of words that English has. Most grammar books say that there are eight parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions and interjections. We will add one more type: articles.
Here is a brief explanation of what the parts of speech are: Noun- a noun is a naming word. It names a person, place, thing, idea, living creature, quality, or action. Examples: cowboy, theatre, box, thought, tree, kindness, arrival.
Verb- a verb is a word which describes an action (doing something) or a state (being something). Examples: walk, talk, think, believe, live, like, want
Adjective- an adjective is a word that describes a noun. It tells you something about the noun. Examples: big, yellow, thin, amazing, beautiful, quick, important
Adverb- an adverb is a word which usually describes a verb. It tells you how something is done. It may also tell you when or where something happened. Examples: slowly, intelligently, well, yesterday, tomorrow, here, everywhere
Pronoun- a pronoun is used instead of a noun, to avoid repeating the noun. Examples: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
Conjunction- a conjunction joins two words, phrases or sentences together. Examples: but, so, and, because, or
Preposition- a preposition usually comes before a noun, pronoun or noun phrase. It joins the noun to some other part of the sentence. Examples: on, in, by, with, under, through, at
Interjection- an interjection is an unusual kind of word, because it often stands alone. Interjections are words which express emotion or surprise, and they are usually followed by exclamation marks. Examples: Ouch!, Hello!, Hurray!, Oh no!, Ha!
Article- an article is used to introduce a noun. Examples: the, a, an
21. Noun and its grammatical categories.
The only morphological category of the noun which is almost always marked in present-day English is that of number. Like in Ukrainian, it is mostly realized synthetically, i.e. through zero and marked inflexions respectively. Eg: child - children, ox - oxen, and correspondingly baths, cargos, jubilees, bushes, watches, countries, heroes/ vetoes, etc.
Traditionally the category of number is defined as the one that shows whether we speak of one subject or more than one. In the contrasted languages completely allomorphic, i.e. characteristic only to the English language, is the formation of plural number by way of sound interchange: foot -feet, tooth - teeth, goose - geese; man - men, woman - women; louse - lice, mouse-mice. A few simple light nouns have in Eng. one end the same form for singular and plural. Ex: ship, fish, pike, someone. Apart from generally Eng. there are some borrowed noun inflexions: curriculum- curricula, data-datum, and phenomena-phenomenon. Unlike Eng. Ukrainian number inflexions are determined by the declension root, gender of a noun, final consonant or vowel, which can be hard, soft or mixed: день-дні, море-море, крило-крила.
Isomorphic semantic groups of singularia tantum nouns:
1. Nouns denoting parts of the world: the north, south південь, північ, захід, схід
2. Names of materials: gold, silver, bread, coffee алюміній, мідь, цукор, сіль, пісок
3. Collective nouns: furniture, rubbish, mankind гарбузиння, селянство, жіноцтво
4. Abstract notions: information, business, courage, knowledge відвага, знання, прогрес, мир
Isomorphic semantic groups of pluralia tantum nouns
1. Some nouns like: opera classes, scales, сани, ворота, цимбали, граблі
2. Names of remains: sweepings, scraps, slops вершки, зметене, вишкребки
3. Names of some games: cards, yards, drafts, skittles шашки, карти, дротики
4. Some abstract and complete notions: outskirts, contents, means будні, злидні, хрестини, заручини
5. Some geographical names: the Urals, the Bermudes, the Carribeans Бермуди, Альпи, Черкаси
The category of case. Case shows relation of words in the sentence expressed by morphological forms of a certain nominal part of speech. English nouns have only two cases – the common case (the uninflected form) and the possessive case (the 's inflected form). Such relations are also expressed by the word order. It is mostly used only with nouns denoting living beings. E.g. my father's house, the house of my father. As to Ukr. nouns we may have 6 or 7 cases, marked singular or plural oppositions in the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative and vocative case. Group possessive.Contrary to the Ukrainian language in which the 's sign of case is related to only one word, in English the 's sign may be related to more than one word – to a whole group of words. E.g. Mary and Ann's room, the man over there's dog. The category of Gender. The classical of gender contains three members: masculine, feminine and neuter. The morphological category of gender in Ukr. is identified through separate inflexions of nouns, the inflexions of attributes “adjectives” and the inflexions of verbs that conjugate with the noun. E.g. ріс молодий каштан, текла холодна вода, бігло маленьке лоша. In comparison with English the majority of scientists believe that the grammatical category of gender had disappeared from the English language by the end of the Middle English period. What has survived the time is the possibility of lexical indication of the biological sex. Means that provide this indication are purely lexical and derivational. E.g. boy-girl, bull-cow, sheep-goat, and suffixes:- ist scientist- er/or actor, emperor- ess actress- o hero- ine heroine All likeless things in Eng. unlike in Ukr. are generally associated with pronoun it (and in Ukr. that is neuter). The tree and its leaves. A stone and its age. In Ukr. on the contrary each noun irrespective of its being alike or likeless belongs to a complete vocabulary, gender. E.g. stone and wolf in Eng.→ it; in Ukr.→ ч.р. In spoken English some life and lifeless nouns may be referred to different genders when they are personified. E.g. sheep→ she. The names of vessels and vehicles like coach, car, carriage are usually associated with feminine gender. So are the names of hotels and inns. The names of celestial voice may be of 3 genders: the sun is he; the moon, paradise is she.
22. The problem of the category of tense
The ideaof locating situations in time is a purely conceptual notion. All the events are referred to one of the three time dimensions – the present, the past or the future. All human languages have ways of locating in time but they do differ in lexicon and grammar in establishing location in time. The Ukrainian language the objective time has the three mentioned above dimensions. English offers much more forms for the expression. The three temporal dimensions can be expressed by means of different English verb forms: Indefinite (Present, Past, Future), Continuous (Present, Past, Future), Perfect (Present, Past, Future), Perfect Continuous (Present, Past, Future).
When we speak about the category of tense in English several problems arise. One of them is even connected with a number of tense aspect form. The matter is that the category of tense in English is inseparably connected with the category of aspect (indefinite, continuous). Thus, speaking about the problem of the category of tense in English we cannot but mention the problem of polysemy of the English grammatical form. E.g. the form "speak" expresses 6 different grammatical categories. It is not an easy question to answer how many tense are there in English. Some scientists say that English has 16 tenses if one takes into account that tense is expressed by the form which points to the category of aspect. At this we must add that they are in the active voice. But if to take into account the fact that we don't disregard the category of aspect, then we should not disregard the passive voice. If to take into account the polysemy and the possibility for English to have active and passive for transitive verbs then the statistics count about 26 tense - aspect- voice forms of which 16 are in the active and only 10 are in the passive forms. Speaking about the problem of the category of tense and the category of aspect we must solve the question of what they belong to. The category of tense answers the question "when", that's it relates to the type of the action. The category of aspect usually answers the question "how", it doesn't relate to the type of the action, but rather to the manner of that action. So, this category is not a temporal category. Category of tense is realised both synthetically and analytically
1. Isomorphism also exists a) in the correlation of the time of action in the matrix close with the time of the expressed action in the subordi nate clause: He says she lives in Kyiv. He said she lived in Kyiv. He will sayshe will live in Kyiv. Or: she will say that she lived in Kyiv or she thought that she came/would come. Or: 1 thought she had come.Similarly in Ukrainian: Він каже, що вона прийшла;він скаже, що вона прийде/що вона вже приходила; він казав, що вона приходила/ приходила була;b) Isomorphism is also observed in the existence of tenses not correlating with the time of actions expressed in the matrix/ main clause, eg: He -will say that he knows/ knew, had knownit. Він скаже, що вона пришила (приходила) приходила була; с) Iso morphism is likewise observed in the existence of some identical forms expressing those same subjunctive mood meanings referring to present or future or to some past action/event. For example:
If I knew that before, I would
If I had known that before, I
would have come.
Were she at home then, she
Had I known that before, I would
In UkrainianЯкби я знав це раніше, я б прийшов.
Якби я був знав це раніше, я був би прийшов.
Була б вона в той час удома, вона
прийшла б.Знав би я був це раніше, я був би прийшов.
23. The category of Voice: passive voice in English and Ukrainian
The category of voice is a category of the verb or verbal inflections that expresses whether the relation between the subject and the verb is that of agent and action, action and recipient, or some other relation.