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The 1st way to establish polysemy or homonymy is to look for a central core meaning.

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Ex.: sour – кислый - disagreeable (new meaning) juicy – сочный; a) the derivative meaning- to arrange- to equip- to build- They are related to the core meaning.b) the nominative meanings. - to cause, to begin; - to make smb seem guilty, to deceive smb. Nominative meanings are more isolated & may give rise to homonyms.

2. Derivation capacity Potential homonyms typically develop their own sets of derivatives.Ex.: custom – 1. обычай, 2. клиентура, 3. (мн.ч.) таможня. “custom” 1,2,3 are potential homonyms because they have different derivatives.

3. The range of collacability.

The word’s collacability is the functioning of the word in speech & the company it keeps with other items. Potential homonyms have quite different range of phraseology. Ex.: charge 1. price free of charge of no extra charg; 2. (when smb is guilty) responsibility to bring charges to press chargesto drop the charges. “Charge” 1, 2 are potential homonyms.

17. Principal ways of word formation.

Word-formation – the process of forming words by combining root and affixal morphemes according to certain patterns specific for the language (affixation, composition), or without any outward means of word formation (conversion, semantic derivation).

2 major groups of word formation:

1) Words formed as grammatical syntagmas, combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding (словосложение), prefixation, suffixation, conversion, and back derivation)

2) Words, which are not grammatical syntagmas, which are not made up of full linguistic signs. Ex.: expressive symbolism, blending, clipping, rhyme & some others.

Different types of word formation: COMPOUNDINGis joining together 2 or more stems.

Types: 1) Without a connecting element: headache, heartbreak; 2) With a vowel or consonant as a linking element: speedometer, craftsman; 3) With a preposition or conjunction as a linking element: down-and-out (в ужасном положении, опустошенный); son-in-law;

PREFIXATION:Prefixes are such particles that can be prefixed to full words. But they are not with independent existence.Native prefixes have developed out of independent words; there is a small number of them: a-; be-; mid-;fore-; mis-.The system of English word formation was entirely upset by the Norman Conquest. From French English borrowed many words with suffixes & prefixes. A lot of borrowed prefixes in English: Auto-; Demi-; Mono-; Multi-; Semi-; Post-.

SUFFIXATION:A suffix is a derivative final element, which is or was productive in forming new words.2 groups: 1) A foreign word is combined with a native affix: full, less, ness: clearness, faithless, faithful. 2) Foreign affixes are added to native words: ance, al, ity, able. Semi suffixes are elements, which stand midway between full words & suffixes like, worthy, way, wise, a Godlike creature, trustworthy, clockwise, midway.

CONVERSION(zero derivation)A certain stem is used for the formation of a categorically different word without a derivative element being added: Bag – to bag;Back – to back; Bottle – to bottle.

CLIPPING:Consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts: Mathematics – maths, Laboratory – lab, Captain – cap, Gymnastics – gym

3 types: 1) The first part is left (the commonest type): advertisement – ad; 2) The second part is left: telephone – phone; airplane – plane; 3) A middle part is left: influenza – flu; refrigerator – fridge.

BLENDINGis part of two words to form one word (merging into one word):Smoke + fog = smog;Breakfast + lunch = brunch;Smoke + haze = smaze (дымка)

WORD MANUFACTURINGA word or word combination that appears or especially coined by some author: Sentence – sentenceness;“I am English & my Englishness is in my vision” (Lawrence)

SOUND INTERCHANGE:Sound interchange is the way of word building when some sounds are changed to form a new word. It is non-productive in Modern English; it was productive in Old English and can be met in other Indo-European languages: e.g. to strike - stroke, to sing – song, hot - to heat (hotian), blood - to bleed (blodian) etc.

STRESS INTERCHANGE:Stress interchange can be mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: nouns have the stress on the first syllable and verbs on the last syllable, e.g. `accent - to ac`cent. we have such pairs in English as: to af`fix -`affix, to con`flict- `conflict, to ex`port -`export, to ex`tract - `extract etc.

SOUND IMITATION:it is the way of word building when imitating different sounds forms a word. a) Sounds produced by human beings, such as: to whisper, to giggle, to mumble, to sneeze, to whistle etc.;b) Sounds produced by animals, birds, insects, such as: to hiss, to buzz, to bark, to moo, to twitter etc.;c) Sounds produced by nature and objects, such as: to splash, to rustle, to clatter, to bubble, to ding-dong, to tinkle etc.

18. Synonyms and Antonyms: definition and classification.

A synonym – is a word of similar or identical meaning to one or more words in the same language. They’re no two absolutely identical words because connotations, ways of usage, frequency of an occurrence are different.

Classification: 1. Total synonyms can replace each other in any given context, without the slightest alteration in denotative or emotional meaning and connotations (e.g. noun and substantive, functional affix, flection and inflection); is a rare occasion. Ex.: бегемот – гиппопотам. 2. Ideographic synonyms. They bear the same idea but not identical in their referential content. Ex.: To happen – to occur – to befall – to chance; Look – appearance – complexion – countenance. 3. Dialectical synonyms. pertaining to different variant of language from dialectal stratification point of view; Ex.: lift – elevator; Queue – line; autumn – fall. 4. Contextual synonyms. Context can emphasize some certain semantic trades & suppress other semantic trades; words with different meaning can become synonyms in a certain context. Ex.: tasteless – dull; Active – curious; Curious – responsive. Synonyms can reflect social conventions. Ex.: clever, bright, brainy, intelligent. 5. Stylistic synonyms. Belong to different styles: child; Infant; Kid; neutral; elevated; colloquial.It refers to situations when writers or speakers bring together several words with one & the same meaning to add more conviction, to description more vivid. Ex.: Safe & sound; Lord & master; First & foremost; Safe & secure; Stress & strain; By force & violence. 6. cognitive synonyms – s. which differ in respect of the varieties of discourse in which they appear; -7. contextual/context-dependent synonyms – similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions, when the difference between the meanings of two words is contextually neutralized: e.g. buy and get. - 8. referential synonyms – a vague term, concerns coreferential expressions, when one denotatum can be defined differently from different points of view and in different aspects: e.g. names Walter Scott and the author of 'Ivanhoe' are coreferential because they refer to one and the same denotatum – Sir Walter Scott; - 9. terminological synonyms – two existing terms for one denotatum: e.g. borrowing and loan-word; concept and notion (the difference between them is not discriminated by some linguists);

Antonym- a word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in which case the two words are antonyms of each other. Antonyms - words of the same category of parts of speech which have contrasting meanings such as hat - cold, light - dark, happiness - sorrow.

Morphological classification:

-Root words form absolute antonyms.(write - wrong).

-The presence of negative affixes creates - derivational antonyms(happy - unhappy).

Semantical classification:

- Contradictory notions are mutually opposed and denying one another, i.e. alive means “not dead” and impatient means “not patient”.

- Contrary notions are also mutually opposed but they are gradable; e.g. old and young are the most distant elements of a series like: old - middle - aged - young.

- Incompatibles semantic relations of incompatibility exist among the antonyms with the common component of meaning and may be described as the relations of exclusion but not of contradiction: to say “morning” is to say “not afternoon, not evening, not night”.


19. The origin of English words: native and borrowed elements.

It is true that English vocabulary, which is one of the most extensive amongst the world's languages contains an immense number of words of foreign origin.

It should be taken into consideration that the English proper element also contains all the later formations, that is, words which were made after the 5th century according to English word-building patterns (see Ch. 5, 6) both from native and borrowed morphemes. The native element in English comprises a large number of high-frequency words like the articles, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliaries and, also, words denoting everyday objects and ideas (e. g. house, child, water, go, come, eat, good, bad, etc.). Furthermore, the grammatical structure is essentially Germanic having remained unaffected by foreign influence.

By the Indo-European element are meant words of roots common to all or most languages of the Indo-European group. English words of this group denote elementary concepts without which no human communication would be possible. The following groups can be identified.1

I. Family relations: father, mother, brother, son,

daughter. II. Parts of the human body: foot (cf. R. пядь), nose, lip, heart.

Animals: cow, swine, goose. Plants: tree, birch (cf. R. береза), corn (cf. R. зерно). V. Time of day: day, night. VI. Heavenly bodies: sun, moon, star. VII. Numerous adjectives: red (cf. Ukr. рудий, R. рыжий), new, glad (cf. R. гладкий), sad (cf. R. сыт). VIII. The numerals from one to a hundred. IX. Pronouns — personal (Scandinavian borrowing); demonstrative. X. Numerous verbs: be (cf. R. быть), stand (cf. R. стоять), sit (cf. R. сидеть), eat (cf. R. есть), know (cf. R. знать, знаю).

The Germanic element represents words of roots common to all or most Germanic languages. Some of the main groups of Germanic words are the same as in the Indo-European element. I. Parts of the human body: head, hand, arm, finger, bone. II. Animals: bear, fox, calf. Plants: oak, fir, grass. Natural phenomena: rain, frost. V. Seasons of the year: winter, spring, summer.1 VI. Landscape features: sea, land. VII. Human dwellings and furniture: house, room, bench. VIII. Sea-going vessels: boat, ship. IX. Adjectives: green, blue, grey, white, small, thick, high, old, good. X. Verbs: see, hear, speak, tell, say, answer, make, give, drink.

It has been mentioned that the English proper element is, in certain respects, opposed to the first two groups. Not only can it be approximately dated, but these words have another distinctive feature: they are specifically English having no cognates2 in other languages whereas for Indo-European and Germanic words such cognates can always be found, as, for instance, for the following words of the Indo-European group.

Star: Germ. Stern, Lat. Stella, Gr. aster.

Sad: Germ, satt, Lat. satis, R. сыт, Snscr. sd-.

Stand: Germ, stehen, Lat. stare, R. стоять, Snscr. stha-.

Here are some examples of English proper words. These words stand quite alone in the vocabulary system of Indo-European languages: bird, boy, girl, lord, lady, woman, daisy, always.

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