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Represented speech is a stylistic device that may be used only in literature, when the author reports the thoughts of the character and it looks like thinking aloud.
Compositional form refers to how a musical composition is structured. There are many different forms in the world, and I'm not going to touch on all of them here; however, here are some examples of common forms:
Binary: AB Ternary: ABA Baroque: AABB In these forms, the letters represent themes in a musical composition.
6. Speak on the Stylistic analysis on the graphic level.
In contemporary advertising, mass media and, above all, imaginative prose sound is foregrounded mainly through the change of its accepted graphical representation. This intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation is called graphon.
Graphons, indicating irregularities or carelessness of pronunciation were occasionally introduced into English novels and journalism as early as the beginning of the eighteenth century and since then have acquired an ever growing frequency of usage, popularity among writers, journalists, advertizers, and a continuously widening scope of functions.
Graphon proved to be an extremely concise but effective means of supplying information about the speaker’s origin, social and educational background, physical or emotional condition, etc.
Graphon, thus individualizing the character’s speech, adds to his plausibility, vividness, memorability. At the same time, graphon is very good at conveying the atmosphere of authentic live communication, of the informality of the speech act. Some amalgamated forms, which are the result of strong assimilation, became cliches in contemporary prose dialogue: “gimme” (give me), “lemme” (let me), “gonna” (going to), “gotta” (got to), “coupla” (couple of), “mighta” (might have), “willya” (will you), etc.
Graphical changes may reflect not only the peculiarities of, pronunciation, but are also used to convey the intensity of the stress, emphasizing and thus foregrounding the stressed words. To such purely graphical means, not involving the violations, we should refer all changes of the type (italics, capitalization), spacing of graphemes (hyphenation, multiplication) and of lines.
According to the frequency of usage, variability of functions, the first place among graphical means of foregrounding is occupied by italics. Besides italicizing words, to add to their logical or emotive significance, separate syllables and morphemes may also be emphasized by italics (which is highly characteristic of D. Salinger or T. Capote). Intensity of speech (often in commands) is transmitted through the multiplication of a grapheme or capitalization of the word.
Summing up the informational options of the graphical arrangement of a word (a line, a discourse), one sees their varied application for recreating the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker, the atmosphere of the communication act — all aimed at revealing and emphasizing the author’s viewpoint.
7. Syntactic SD. Different syntactical phenomena may serve as an expressive stylistic means. Its expressive effect may be based on the absence of logically required components of speech - parts of the sentence, formal words or on the other hand on a superabundance of components of speech.
Ellipsis. Elliptical sentences are sentences in which one or more words are omitted, leaving the full form to be understood by the reader or hearer. e.g. I beg your pardon, sir. Didn’t know. Sorry to have bothered you.”
Aposiopesis is found in sentences unfinished logically or structurally due to which the expression of the thought conveyed is limited to a hint. e.g. “If you don’t give me your signature when I come back tomorrow …”(implies threat).
One member sentences are those which have no separate subject and predicate but only one main part. This main part may be expressed by a noun (so-called nominal sentences) or an infinitive (infinitive sentences). e.g. To be alive! To have youth and the world before one!
Zeugma is a figure of speech in which a verb or adjective does duty with two or sometimes more than two nouns and to only one of which it is strictly applicable. Zeugma is based on polysemy, often on the literal and figurative meanings of a word e.g. then came fish and silence.
Superabundance of Components of Speech may be found in different types of repetition and in the emphatic construction.
1. Simple reiteration is limited to the repetition of the same word, phrase or sentence though not necessarily in one sentence or even paragraph, it may be found in much larger syntactical units. 2. The repetition of the root is a special type of reiteration in which only the root of the word and not the full word is repeated. e.g. To live again in the youth of the young (a tinge of regret for fast passing youth). 3. Framing is a type of repetition, when the same word or words, standing at the beginning of the sentence or syntactical unit are repeated at the end of it. e.g. Those kids were getting it all right, with busted heads and bleeding faces – those kids were getting it. 6. Polysyndeton is the repetition of the conjunction or some other formal word before each following homogeneous part of the sentence. It serves as a means of distinguishing each part by isolating them from each other and at the same time connecting them into one sense unit. e.g. The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect. 7. Anaphora is the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of clauses, sentences, periods, or in poetry at the beginning of lines, stanzas. e.g. “Why didn’t you dare it before?” he asked harshly. “when I hadn’t a job ? When I was starving? 8. Epiphora is the repetition of the same word or words at the end of two or more succeeding clauses, sentences, verses etc. e.g. It’s their wealth and security that makes everything possible makes your art possible, makes literature, science, even religion possible (Galsworthy).
Synonymic Repetitionis a peculiar type of repetition consisting in the use of synonymous means to express the same idea. Emphatic Constructions are sentences with the anticipatory “it” which serves to stress any part of the sentence.e.g. It was Winifred who went up to him. e.g. It was while passing through Moulsey lock that Harris told me about his maze experience. Rhetoric questions is a widely used expressive means. It is an affirmative or negative statement in the form of the question. It is emotionally coloured, is distinct from an ordinary question which is asked to draw forth some information, the rhetoric question does not require any answer; e.g. What will not necessity do?Inversion always brings about either change in the logical content of the sentence, or lends an additional emotional colouring to the narration. Enumeration is another expressive means which consists in naming over various qualities or recounting different objects or actions with the purpose of giving a many-sided artistic characterization to the phenomenon described. Represented speech is a form of utterance which renders the actual words of the speaker through the mouth of the writer retaining the peculiarities of the speaker’s manner of expression. There are two varieties of represented speech: Uttered represented speech is employed in belles-letter style and newspaper style.
Unuttered (inner) represented speech renders the thoughts and feelings of the character he does not express aloud.
8. Dwell on modern models of communication8. Shannon's Model of the Communication Process
Shannon's (1948) model of the communication process is, in important ways, the beginning of the modern field. It provided, for the first time, a general model of the communication process that could be treated as the common ground of such diverse disciplines as journalism, rhetoric, linguistics, and speech and hearing sciences. Part of its success is due to its structuralist reduction of communication to a set of basic constituents that not only explain how communication happens, but why communication sometimes fails.
Shannon's model, as shown in Figure 1, breaks the process of communication down into eight discrete components:
Variations of Figure 3's gatekeeper model are also used in teaching organizational communication, where gatekeepers, in the form of bridges and liaisons, have some ability to shape the organization through their selective sharing of information. These variations are generally more complex in depiction and often take the form of social network diagrams that depict the interaction relationships of dozens of people. There are two elaborations of Shannon's model: the interactive model and the transactive model. The interactive model, a variant of which is shown in Figure 4, elaborates Shannon's model. The key concept associated with this elaboration is that destinations provide feedback on the messages they receive such that the information sources can adapt their messages, in real time. This is an important elaboration, and as generally depicted, a radically oversimplified one. Feedback is a message (or a set of messages). The source of feedback is an information source. The consumer of feedback is a destination. Feedback is transmitted, received, and potentially disruptable via noise sources.
9. The Theory of Speech acts.
According to Searle to understand language one must understand the speaker’s intention. Since language is an intentional behavior it should be treated like a form of action. Searle refers to statement like speech acts. The Speech act is a basic unit of language used to express meaning that is an utterance that expresses our intention. Normally a speech act is a sentence but it can also be a word or a phrase. To understand the speaker’s intention we must capture the meaning of the statement. There are 4 types of speech acts:
- Utterance acts
- Prepositional acts
- Elocutionary acts (promises, questions, or commands)
- Perlocutionary acts is the behavioral response from the listener
Speech act theory has contributed to the rules of communication because it provides a basis for examining what happens when speaker’s use different communication and behavioral rules.
10. Communication process and its elements
Various elements work together to achieve a desired outcome as communication takes place. The basic components or parts of the communication system are: the communicators (sender and receiver), message channel, feedback, noise, situation, and the interdependence of all the elements in the process. By that they are interrelated and work systematically.
The source of the communication transaction is the originator of the message. Also known as the sender of information, the source initiates the communication process. In speech communication, we can identify the source to be the speaker, the one delivering the message. In daily life situations we are all sources of information as we relate to others and speak our ideas to them. We are both a source of message, consciously and unconsciously.