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Pronoun and adverb changes in reported speech




Reported Speech. Sequence of Tenses.

 

When we want to report what someone said, we can use direct speech or reported speech.

In direct speechwe give the exact words that the person said, and we use quotation marks (‘ …’ or “ …” ).

E. g. Annie said, “ I’m hungry.”

In reported speech (indirect speech) the speaker quotes what someone has said or written from his own point of view. In reported speech we don’t use quotation marks.

E. g. Annie says (that) she is hungry.

Annie said that she was hungry.

Reported speech represents a complex sentence with a subordinate object clause. As the reporter quotes someone’s speech from his own point of view, there are some changes in tenses, pronouns and adverbs between the reported speech and related direct speech.

In reported statements, the quoted statement changes to that object clause.

In reported yes / no questions, the quoted question changes to an if / whether object clause.

In reported special (whquestions) and alternative questions, the quoted question changes to wh object clause.

In all types of object clauses (that clauses, if clauses, wh clauses) the word order is direct.

E. g. Customer:Can you tell me where the manager is?

Cashier: I’m sorry, I’m not sure if she is available now, but the assistant manager is over there.

Pronoun and adverb changes in reported speech

Pronouns change or not depending on the view of the reporter.

E. g. Ann: ‘I’ll send you a card, Sue.’

Ann told Sue she would send her a card. (reported by someone else)

Ann told meshe would send mea card. (reported by Sue)

I told Sue that Iwould send hera card. (reported by Ann)

E. g. Sue: ‘I’m on holiday with my friend.’

Sue said (that) shewas on holiday with herfriend.

Time and place adverbs also change. Adverb changes depend on the situation (the context).

here – there

this – that

these – those

now – then

now – immediately

a year (a week, a month, etc.) ago – a year before

today – that day

tonight – that night

tomorrow – the next day

yesterday – the day before, the previous day

next Monday – the following Monday (Tuesday, etc.)

last Monday – the previous Monday (Tuesday, etc.)

so, such – very, exceedingly, excessively

E. g. “I’ll see you here tomorrow, Jack,” said Mary.

Mary told Jack she would see him there the next day.

E. g. “I gave you this yesterday,” said John.

John said (that) he had given it to her the day before.

 


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