|Главная Случайная страница
Разделы: Автомобили Астрономия Биология География Дом и сад Другие языки Другое Информатика История Культура Литература Логика Математика Медицина Металлургия Механика Образование Охрана труда Педагогика Политика Право Психология Религия Риторика Социология Спорт Строительство Технология Туризм Физика Философия Финансы Химия Черчение Экология Экономика Электроника
Metonymy is transference of a name of one object to another object. Metonymic transference of names is based upon the principle of contiguity of the two objects.
Assigned features. As a rule, metonymy is expressed by nouns, less frequently - by substantivized numerals. That is why the syntactic functions and positions of metonymic words are those of the subject, object and predicative.
Classification. Metonymy may be lexical and contextual (genuine). Lexical metonymy is a source of creating new words or new meanings: table's leg, teapots nose, a hand (instead of a worker), the press (instead of people writing for newspapers), grave (instead of death), the cradle (instead of infancy), etc. Such metonymic meanings are registered in dictio-
naries. It is obvious that lexical metonymy is devoid of stylistic information. Contextual metonymy is the result of unexpected substitution of one word for another in speech. It is fresh and expressive:
This pair of whiskers is a convinced scoundrel. Communicative functions. Stylistic metonymy builds up imagery, points out
this or another feature of the object described, and makes speech economical. More examples:
The sword is the worst argument in a situation like that.
The other voice shook his head and went away.
The messenger was followed by a pair of heavy boots.
The fish swallowed her death and the float went down.
I wish you had Gary's ears and Jack's eves.
Linda gave her heart to the grocer's young man.
Окуляри сьогодні були дуже прискіпливі: на зборах дивилися
суворо як на молодий ентузіазм, так і на обачливу старість.
Язик до Києва доведе.
Нам треба більше робочих рук.
Чого ти, чуєш, розсівся перед моїми літами, перед моїм смутком
А повз неї тупали тисячі ніг, дихали тисячі грудей, ревіли баси і
танцювали, як божевільні, дзвони.
• Metonymy can be seen as a specific kind of symbolism by which the most essential component of the subject is abstracted to represent it. This component acts as a single symbol for something larger and usually more complex.
• For instance, a crown is the most essential material component of the trappings of royalty, and so it serves well in representing the whole system of monarchy.
• Similarly, the stage is a material component of acting as a profession. This too serves to represent symbolically something abstract and dynamic.
• The 'cloth' symbolises the religious profession, and the 'bar' represents the legal profession. Both these items are essential material objects and are used to refer to the abstract concept of a profession.
• In a statement such as 'Shakespeare depicts monarchs as human' the name is actually symbolising the total collection of his works. This form of metonymy is useful as a very graphic kind of shorthand.
• This pragmatic explanation could also apply to the example of 'Whitehall announced today...', although we could ascribe more political and even ulterior functions to this usage. [Remember, 'Whitehall' represent the civil service in the UK.]
• To refer to Whitehall as having issued a statement is to generalise the source of the communication. This may be in the political interest of the Establishment. It is a form of social control to promote an image of a corporate mass of civil servants, rather than suggesting that one person or even a small hierarchical group makes significant and powerful
• Whitehall as a material location stands for something abstract, in this
• This political interpretation is merely speculation, but the mechanical analysis of metonymy as a symbolic device stands on firmer ground.
• [Pedants who collect terms enjoy distinguishing metonymy from synech-doche, which is its figurative bedfellow.]
This variety of metonymy is realized in two variants. The first variant is naming the whole object by mentioning part of it:
Caroline lives with Jack under the same roof (under the same roof -
in the same house).
The second variant of synecdoche is using the name of the whole object to denote a constituent part of this object:
The hall applauded (the hall = the people inside). More examples:
The school went to the zoo.
Here comes another beard.
The blue suit bowed and left the room.
Tfie museum spoke of the past.
It's October now. Rummer's rose no more.
Словом, він був надзвичайно розумною талановитою людиною.
Його кров вас покарає.
Він мав свій куток, свій шматок хліба.
Уночі палало село.
Профспілки звикли до масовості, для них зайвий чоловік поряд -
• In the expression 'All hands on deck!', the term 'hands' stands for 'mariners'.
• The term 'hand' has been chosen to represent the whole expression 'able-bodied seaman' [or in PC (politically correct) terms 'sea-person'] because that is the most important feature required for work on deck.
• In the expression 'United won the match', the term 'United' (in the case of Manchester United Football Club) might not appear to be the most important or essential item to represent the whole.
• However, Manchester has two football teams — the other being Manchester City Football Club. A supporter of MUFC would therefore be selecting the one important linguistic feature which distinguished his team from the other football club.
• The parts of the name 'Manchester' and 'Football Club' would be implied by the speaker, and understood by the listener.