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The East End

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The City of London known as "the City" and the City of Westminster are the most ancient parts of it. These parts seem to belong to different towns and epochs.

The City of London is the birthplace of London. It was a place of the original Roman settlement and later commercial and trading centre. Meanwhile. Westminster was outside London's walls and became England's administrative capital after its transfer from Winchester in the 11th century. When the first English Parliament was called here in the 13th century the Westminster area was a separate City of Westminster. So, London has no obvious centre, because it grew out of two formerly distinct cities.

Central London includes the West End. the City of Westminster and the City. This area is roughly bounded by the Underground Circle Line (the British call their underground "the tube).

They say, the City is "the money of London", the West End is "the goods of London". the East End is "the hands of London".


City of London, municipal corporation and borough, London. Sometimes called the “Square Mile,” it is one of the 33 boroughs that make up Greater London.

The borough lies on the north bank of the River Thames between the Temple Bar memorial pillar (commemorating the old Temple Bar gate) and the base of Tower Hill. The City Corporation is Britain’s oldest local government; it has the status of a county, with powers that exceed those of London’s 32 other boroughs (collectively called Greater London), notably the control of its own police force. “The City,” as it is known, is only a component, relatively small in area, of the larger urban area known as London. Its area corresponds closely to that of the medieval city from which modern London has grown. The City belongs geographically to the historic county of Middlesex, but its special status and privileges gave it autonomy from that county for most of its history.

Near the City’s centre stand the Bank of England, the Royal Exchange (now housing luxury shops and a restaurant), the Stock Exchange, and the rest of London’s financial district. Also in the City are St. Paul’s Cathedral, the Guildhall, Mansion House (the residence of the lord mayor), the Barbican arts complex and residential area, the main branch of the Museum of London, and the College of Arms. West of St. Paul’s is Fleet Street, once the hub of London’s newspaper establishment. The Temple and the Royal Courts of Justice, constituting the heart of the legal profession, are on the boundary with Westminster. Within its area the City maintains small open spaces, but from the 1870s it has acquired green areas in other London boroughs and in Kent, Surrey, and Buckinghamshire for public use and for protection from development. London’s Millennium Bridge (opened 2000; retrofitted and reopened 2002) links the City to the borough of Southwark; it was the first new bridge to span the Thames for more than a century.

Hundreds of thousands of workers and tens of thousands of other visitors commute daily to the City via highway, bus, the Underground (subway), or train stations at Blackfriars and at Liverpool, Fenchurch, and Cannon streets. Because of migration to other areas of London and to the suburbs, the resident population of the Square Mile decreased markedly after 1851, when 127,869 persons were counted, to 26,923 in 1901 and 5,234 in 1951. Thereafter the population remained somewhat stable until the 1990s, when it began to grow. Area 1.1 square miles (2.9 square km). Pop. (2001) 7,185.



West End of London

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Night entertainment in Leicester Square - a heart of the West End.

The West End of London (more commonly referred to as simply The West End) is an area of central London, containing many of the city's major tourist attractions, shops, businesses, government buildings, and entertainment (including the commercial West End theatres). Use of the term began in the early 19th century to describe fashionable areas to the west of Charing Cross.[1] For strategic planning the area is identified as one of two international centres in the London Plan.[2]

The West End is the most expensive location in the world to rent office space.[3][4]

[edit] Location

Shaftesbury Avenue from Piccadilly Circus in 1949.

Located to the west of the historic Roman and Mediaeval City of London, the West End was long favoured by the rich elite as a place of residence because it was usually upwind of the smoke drifting from the crowded City. It was also located close to the royal seat of power at Westminster, and is largely contained within the City of Westminster (one of the 32 London boroughs). Developed in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was originally built as a series of palaces, expensive town houses, fashionable shops and places of entertainment. The areas closest to the City around Holborn, Seven Dials and Covent Garden historically contained poorer communities that were cleared and redeveloped in the nineteenth century.

The name "West End" is a flexible term with different meanings in different contexts. It may refer to the entertainment district around Leicester Square and Covent Garden; to the shopping district centred on Oxford Street, Regent Street, and Bond Street; or, less commonly, to the whole of that part of central London (itself an area with no generally agreed boundaries) which lies to the west of the City of London.

[edit] Ward of the City of Westminster

Main article: West End (City of Westminster)

One of the local government wards within the City of Westminster is called 'West End'. This covers a far more narrow definition of Mayfair, Soho, and parts of Fitzrovia and Marylebone. However, in the United Kingdom, ward boundaries are generally only familiar to people involved in local politics and administration, and this ward carries little weight as an 'official' definition of the West End, and is not intended to do so.

Her Majesty's Theatre in Haymarket, home to Andrew Lloyd Webber’s The Phantom of the Opera.

Taking a fairly broad definition of the West End, the area contains the main concentrations of most of London's metropolitan activities apart from financial services, which are concentrated primarily in the City of London. There are major concentrations of the following buildings and activities in the West End:

Art galleries and museums

Company headquarters outside the financial services sector (although London's many hedge funds are based mainly in the West End)

Educational institutions


Government buildings (mainly around Whitehall)


Institutes, learned societies and think tanks

Legal institutions

Media establishments

Places of entertainment: theatres; cinemas; nightclubs; bars and restaurants


The annual New Year’s Day Parade takes place on the streets of the West End.

[edit] Districts


Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square

Using the broadest definition, these are the inner districts of the West End, which were all developed by about 1815:


Covent Garden





Seven Dials


St. James's


The districts to the south, north and west of Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens were developed between the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the late 19th century, in some cases based on existing villages. The more fashionable of them were generally regarded as being in the West End at that time, but the extension of the term to these areas west of Park Lane is less common nowadays. The last two listed especially are fringe cases:

Knightsbridge (listed as a distinct 'international centre' in the London Plan)[2]




South Kensington



Notting Hill

East End of London

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This article is about the district of London. For other uses, see East End (disambiguation).

Christ Church, Spitalfields

The East End of London, also known simply as the East End, is the area of London, England, United Kingdom, east of the medieval walled City of London and north of the River Thames. Although not defined by universally accepted formal boundaries, the River Lea can be considered another boundary.[1] Use of the term in a pejorative sense began in the late 19th century,[2] as the expansion of the population of London led to extreme overcrowding throughout the area and a concentration of poor people and immigrants.[3] The problems were exacerbated with the construction of St Katharine Docks (1827)[4] and the central London railway termini (1840–1875) that caused the clearance of former slums and rookeries, with many of the displaced people moving into the East End. Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, overcrowding, disease and criminality.[5]

The East End developed rapidly during the 19th century. Originally it was an area characterised by villages clustered around the City walls or along the main roads, surrounded by farmland, with marshes and small communities by the River, serving the needs of shipping and the Royal Navy. Until the arrival of formal docks, shipping was required to land its goods in the Pool of London, but industries related to construction, repair, and victualling of ships flourished in the area from Tudor times. The area attracted large numbers of rural people looking for employment. Successive waves of foreign immigration began with Huguenot refugees creating a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century.[6] They were followed by Irish weavers,[7] Ashkenazi Jews[8] and, in the 20th century, Bangladeshis.[9] Many of these immigrants worked in the clothing industry. The abundance of semi- and unskilled labour led to low wages and poor conditions throughout the East End. This brought the attentions of social reformers during the mid-18th century and led to the formation of unions and workers associations at the end of the century. The radicalism of the East End contributed to the formation of the Labour Party, and Emmeline Pankhurst based campaigns for women's votes in the area.

Official attempts to address the overcrowded housing began at the beginning of the 20th century under the London County Council. The Second World War devastated much of the East End, with its docks, railways and industry forming a continual target, leading to dispersal of the population to new suburbs and new housing being built in the 1950s.[5] The closure of the last of the East End docks in the Port of London in 1980 created further challenges and led to attempts at regeneration and the formation of the London Docklands Development Corporation. The Canary Wharf development, improved infrastructure, and the Olympic Park[10] mean that the East End is undergoing further change, but some parts continue to contain some of the worst poverty in Britain.[11]


London can really boast about its variety of parks. London parks are spectacular and truly amazing. You can never imagine city such as London to have so much green and open space. In every part of London you can find at least one park. It doesn't matter if it's just a small pool with surrounding trees or a park like the magnificent and slightly wild in appearance Richmond Park. Considering sheer numbers of London parks we will concentrate on most popular ones.

Hyde Park - This is the most prominent and famous London park. Surrounded from north with Queensway and Bayswater (plenty of youth hotels and hostels including Whiteleys shopping centre), with Mayfair (American Embassy, Bond Street, the Intercontinental hotel) from east, Kensington on west (nice small shops on Kensington Church Street) and Knightsbridge on south (Exhibition Road, Royal Albert Hall, Harrods shop, Belgrave Square with Embassies), this park has the best London location from where you can reach main shopping areas. Being 360 acres in size it can take some time to cross it over. In summer time there is an option of renting a small boat and gently paddling in the lake, having refreshing drink or maybe fishing in certain allocated places. You will need a licence for fishing so please purchase one before you come here. If you are into roller-skating this is the place for you. At the Speakers Corner you are free to scream at the whole wide world or have a normal debate with strangers about topics that interest you. Kensington Palace can be found in Kensington Gardens, part of Hyde Park. If you would like to pay tribute to late Princess Diana go there. After her death thousands upon thousand's of people came just to lay the flowers and leave cards. Hotels near Hyde Park

google_protectAndRun("render_ads.js::google_render_ad", google_handleError, google_render_ad); The second London park that visitors regularly see is Green Park. This is the place where on Saturdays and Sundays you can hardly move due to huge number of people standing outside Buckingham Palace gates. Maybe while you are at the gates you will have a chance to see people attempting to access the Palace driving car trough the gates or just landing with parachute like it happened before. The Buckingham Palace was built in 1703 and bought by King George III sixty years later on. It became a permanent residence of Kings and Queens after King George IV commissioned remodeling in 1824. It was "updated" twice more for needs of the court and their families. If you can see the Royal flag flying over the east front, you know that Her Majesty the Queen is inside. The interior of the Palace is open to the visiting public during August and September. Hotels near Green Park

Adjacent to the Green Park is St. James's Park. You can really enjoy these parks on Sundays when they are closed to traffic. Inside the park you can see St. James's Palace that was originally built on the site of a lepers` hospital. Just before his execution Charles I decided to spend his last night there. It is the home of Duke and Duchess of Kent as well as offices for various other royals. You are not allowed to go inside, apart from Chapel Royal that is open for services only. Short walk from the Palace you will emerge on to Parliament Square and see splendour of the Big Ben, Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey. Hotels near St. James`s Park

Taking a tube to Baker Street, Regent`s Park or Portland Street you will emerge in front of Regents`s Park. Situated in northwest London, this park can offer you variety of fun and leisure. Inside the park is boating lake where you can yet rent a boat and take pictures of birds nesting on an island found in the middle of lake. If you are avid lover of beautifully cultivated flowers you will have memorable experience. With plenty of chairs and benches around, you could just sit and watch the time pass you by. Hotels near Regent`s Park

google_protectAndRun("render_ads.js::google_render_ad", google_handleError, google_render_ad); There is small restaurant inside the park but we have to say that cup of coffee or tea is expensive. Our suggestion is to bring a picnic basket with you. On the north side of the park is London Zoo. Following recent renovations and installation of new cages you can see endangered species and help the animals by adopting them. It will give you sense of achievement and will really help preserve the Zoo that is always in need of financial support. You can play a game of tennis or if you have come in larger numbers there are plenty of football fields where you can test your skill. The park is also the home of Regents College with many foreign students who have come here for further education. Inside Regents Park is the biggest Mosque in London and during Muslim holidays can become crowded and busy with traffic.

Close to Regents park there is a small park called Primrose Hill Park. During the summer months and whenever we have nice sunny day, many people go there to sunbathe or read the newspaper and gently doze off. It offers a nice view of central London if you can manage to climb to the top. The park with an even better view of London isAlexandra Park. To reach it please take a train to Alexandra Palace station or tube to Wood Green (situated approximately 20 minutes away from the park). The view is absolutely stunning and you can even go inside the Alexandra Palace complex where ice-skating during hot and humid days can cool you down.

Between Alexandra Park and Regents Park isHampstead Heath. With a choice of going by tube to Hampstead or taking a train to Hampstead Heath you can have really enjoyable day walking and sightseeing. The park is fairly large and you can even swim in some of the ponds. The ponds inside the park are surrounded with bushes and trees and if you like fishing there is a chance to do so. People with younger children can pay a small amount to professional anglers who will take a charge of your young ones. Hotels near Hampstead Heath

The last three London parks we are going to mention are slightly further away from central London but you will see why we are encouraging you to visit them.

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The first one isKew Gardens. It can be reached by train and District Line of the tube. Train stations are: Kew Gardens and Richmond. You can take local buses if you are based locally or minicab and black cab for journey from other parts of town. Kew Gardens is a legend amongst the parks. To see botanical wonders from around the globe you have to come here. They store thousands of seeds in vaults to make sure that we do not lose another plant species. The glass houses full of palms, exotic flowers and shrubs will take your breath away. The Japanese Gateway, Temperate House, Bamboo garden, Temple of Bellona and Rose Garden, to name but a few, will astonish you. It is hard to describe the pleasure and delight you will experience. You really have to go there and see it with your own eyes. Open from: daily 9:30am-7:30pm or dusk. Tel: 0208 332 5655.

Not far away from Kew Gardens you can find Syon Park. There are fairs organised by local people few times a year. This park has a small Butterfly House. Inside the building you are welcomed by the scent and humidity of a tropical forest. The house was made for younger visitors but anyone can enjoy it. Hundreds of butterflies fly all around you and you can sneak an look at a day in the life of an ant colony. You will see how well organised these little creatures are and how they rummage through the forest. You can buy a very cheap Stick-bug at the end of your tour.

The last park is our favourite Richmond Park. It is HUGE. With a kind of wild exterior this park has certain look that will calm you and maybe extinguish the way we live urban life. Take our advice and go early in the morning with a picnic basket in one hand and blanket in the other. You have a good chance of seeing deer grazing and walking around the park. They often roam around in the summer months. Relationship between locals and deer has been long time established and they are very tame. By the way, they are Royal property so if you are driving through the park be careful and look out for them crossing the road.

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