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The West End




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Buckingham Palace

Text 1

Buckingham Palace. This is the principal façade, the East Front; originally constructed by Edward Blore and completed in 1850. It acquired its present appearance following a remodelling, in 1913, by Sir Aston Webb.

Queen Victoria, the first monarch to reside at Buckingham Palace, moved into the newly completed palace upon her accession in 1837.

Buckingham Palace, in London, is the principal residence and office of the British monarch.[1] Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is a setting for state occasions and royal hospitality. It has been a focus for the British people at times of national rejoicing and crisis.

Originally known as Buckingham House, the building which forms the core of today's palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1705 on a site which had been in private ownership for at least 150 years. It was subsequently acquired by George III in 1761[2] as a private residence for Queen Charlotte, and known as "The Queen's House". During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, forming three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace finally became the official royal palace of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. The last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the East front which contains the well-known balcony on which the Royal Family traditionally congregate to greet crowds outside. However, the palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb in World War II; the Queen's Gallery was built on the site and opened to the public in 1962 to exhibit works of art from the Royal Collection.

The original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which still survive, included widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream and gold colour scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House. The Buckingham Palace Garden is the largest private garden in London.

The state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September, as part of the Palace's Summer Opening.

 

Text 2

Buckingham Palace, palace and London residence of the British sovereign. It is situated within the borough of Westminster. The palace takes its name from the house built (c. 1705) for John Sheffield, duke of Buckingham. It was bought in 1762 by George III for his wife, Queen Charlotte, and became known as the queen’s house. By order of George IV, John Nash initiated the conversion of the house into a palace in the 1820s. Nash also reshaped the Buckingham Palace Gardens and designed the Marble Arch entryway, which was later removed (1851) to the northeast corner of Hyde Park. The Mall front, or Fore Court (east side), was expanded in 1847 by Edward Blore and redesigned in 1913 by Sir Aston Webb as a background for the Queen Victoria Memorial statue. Nash’s garden front (west side) remains virtually unchanged. Victoria was the first sovereign to live there (from 1837).

Within the palace the Queen’s Gallery exhibits works from the royal art collection, including Fabergé eggs and drawings by Leonardo da Vinci. The changing of the guard takes place regularly (generally every morning from May through July and every other morning during the rest of the year), but the royal standard is flown over the palace only when the sovereign is in residence. Traditionally closed to the public, the State Rooms of the palace were opened to tourists during August and September in the mid-1990s in order to finance repairs to Windsor Castle, which was damaged by fire in 1992.

Since the mid-18th century the Royal Mews (stables and coach houses with living quarters above) have been located on the palace grounds; the current buildings date from 1824–25. Within the mews are the luxurious motorcars, dozens of carriages, and horses that figure prominently in royal processions and ceremonies. Notable among the carriages are the Gold State Coach (1762), the Irish State Coach (1852), and the Glass State Coach (1910).

Leading northeast from the palace and the Queen Victoria Memorial, the straight avenue of the Mall divides St. James’s Park from Green Park, skirts the grounds of St. James’s Palace, and eventually reaches the Admiralty Arch, gateway to Charing Cross.

Four Main Parts of London

London consists of four parts which differ from one another:

the City

— Westminster area(or the City of Westminster)

the West End







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