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4. Interference (noise)is anything that distorts the information transmitted to receiver or distracts him /her receiving it. Technical interference: factors that cause the receiver to perceive distortion: speech impediment, mumbling, loud music etc.Semantic interference when the receiver does not attribute the same meaning to the signal that the sender does.
5. Feedback is the return to you of the behavior you have generated: communication is effective when the stimulus as it was initiated & intended by the sender corresponds closely with the stimulus as it is perceived & responded to by the receiver.
6. Perceptual filters (culture-bound). Culture is afraid of reference.
7. Roles: work roles, student roles, gender roles, marital roles, etc.
8. An inference is a conclusion or judgment derived from evidence or assumptions.
The characteristic features of the communication process:
1.Inferential (we derive implicit meanings)
4.Jointly negotiated between speakers & hearers
5.Varied according to context & language user, according to the participants’ relationships
6.Involves commonsense knowledge
7.Is sequential (retrospective & prospective)
8.Is accomplished in real time & space
The process of communication is organized, standardized & culturally patterned. It consists of 2 reciprocal processes: verbalization (speech production) & understanding.
Both processes can be viewed as multilevel activities.