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Read the following text. Use dictionary if necessary. The main goals when treating children with autism are to lessen associated deficits and family distress




The main goals when treating children with autism are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, and to increase quality of life and functional independence. The treatment should be typically adjusted to the child's needs. Families and the educational system are the main resources for treatment. Many psychosocial interventions have some positive evidence, suggesting that some form of treatment is preferable to no treatment, the methodological quality of systematic reviews of these studies has generally been poor, their clinical results are mostly tentative, and there is little evidence for the relative effectiveness of treatment options. Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy early in life can help children acquire self-care, social, and job skills, and often improve functioning and decrease symptoms of severity and maladaptive behavior. Available approaches include applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy, social skills therapy, and occupational therapy.

Intensive ABA treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing global functioning in preschool children and is well-established for improving intellectual performance of children. Neuropsychological reports are often poorly communicated to educators, resulting in a gap between what a report recommends and what education is provided. It is not known whether treatment programs for children lead to significant improvements after the children grow up, and the limited research on the effectiveness of adult programs shows mixed results. The appropriateness of including children with varying severity of autism spectrum disorders in the general education population is a subject of current debate among educators and researchers.

Many medications are used to treat ASD symptoms when behavioral treatment fails. More than half of US children diagnosed with ASD are prescribed psychoactive drugs or anticonvulsants, with the most common drug classes being antidepressants, stimulants, and antipsychotics. There is scant reliable research about the effectiveness or safety of drug treatments for adolescents and adults with ASD. A person with ASD may respond atypically to medications, the medications can have adverse effects, and no known medication relieves autism's core symptoms of social and communication impairments. Experiments in mice have reduced some symptoms related to autism by replacing or modulating gene functioning.

Although many alternative therapies are available, few are supported by scientific studies. But some alternative treatments may place the child at risk. The study of 2009 found that compared to their peers, autistic boys have significantly thinner bones if on casein-free diets.

After childhood, key treatment issues include residential care, job training and placement, sexuality, social skills.

Ш. 1. Answer the questions:

1) What are the main problems of using drug medications in case of autism?

2) Does the gap between the scientific researches and the educational programs really exist?

3) What are the main goals of treatment of the children with autism?

4) Are the alternative therapies supported by scientific studies?

5) What are the main available approaches in treatment of the individuals with autism?

 

2. Say whether the following statements are true or false:

1) The main goal when treating children with autism is to place them into boarding schools.

2) The treatment of child with autism should be typically adjusted to the child's needs.

3) None of psychosocial interventions have positive evidence.

4) Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy early in life can help children acquire self-care, social, and job skills, and often improve functioning and decrease symptoms of severity and maladaptive behavior.

5) Available approaches include applied behavior analysis (ABA), therapeutic massage, starvation diet and hypnotherapy.

6) Intensive ABA treatment hasn’t demonstrated any effectiveness in enhancing global functioning in preschool children.

7) Neuropsychological reports are often poorly communicated to educators, resulting in a gap between what a report recommends and what education is provided.

8) More than half of US children diagnosed with ASD are prescribed psychoactive drugs.

9) All children with ASD respond normally to drug medications.

10) Although many alternative therapies of autism are available, but few of them are supported by scientific studies.

3. Continue the sentences:

1) Intensive, sustained special education programs…

2) Available approaches include…

3) The appropriateness of including children with…

4) There is scant reliable research about…

5) Experiments in mice…

6) The study of 2009 found…

7) After childhood, key treatment issues include…

 

4. Which word in the list is odd?

1) self-care skills, social skills, job skills, maladaptive behavior;

2) applied behavior analysis (ABA), sports, developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy, social skills therapy, occupational therapy;

3) psychoactive drugs, anticonvulsants, long-acting hypnotics, antidepressants, stimulants, antipsychotics;

4) residential care, heavy medication, job training and placement, social skills.

5. Fill in the blanks with the words from the text:

The treatment should be typically… to the child's needs. Families and the educational system are the main resources for ...

Many … …have some positive…, suggesting that some form of treatment is preferable to no treatment, the methodological quality of … …of these studies has generally been poor.

Intensive, … special education … and behavior therapy early in life can help children acquire…, social, and job skills, and often improve functioning and decrease symptoms of severity and...

Intensive ABA treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in … global functioning in preschool children and is well-established for improving … …of children.

Neuropsychological reports are often poorly communicated to educators, resulting in …between what a report recommends and what education is provided.

Many medications are used to treat ASD symptoms when … …fails.

Although many … … are available, few are supported by… …

The study of 2009 found that compared to their peers, autistic boys have significantly thinner bones if on … diets.

6. Give synonyms from the text:

-the chief aims;

-to live on one’s own;

-the most recent discussions;

-the other ways of treatment;

-an indicator of mental progress.

7. Make up the plan of the text. Here are the titles in the wrong order. Make the order correct:

1) The usage of drug medications in case of autism;

2) The problem of a gap between the scientific researches and the educational programs;

3) The key aspects of treatment of the children with autism;

4) The alternative therapies;

5) The main treatment options.

 


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