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GRAMMAR. Match the two halves of the sentences so that they make sense. 1




Match the two halves of the sentences so that they make sense.

1. If I found a gun in the street, a you will be fined
2. You wouldn’t have been punished b he would be able to catch the thief
3. If you drive so fast, c he wouldn’t have had a black eye
4. If you had taken my advice, d it wouldn’t have been stolen
5. If he could run faster, e this wouldn’t have happened
6. If he hadn’t been assaulted, f I would take it to the police
7. If I had locked the car, g you wouldn’t have been sent to prison
8. If I had been more careful, h you’ll be fined
9. If you park here, I he would be executed
10. If the capital punishment had not been abolished, j if you hadn’t broken the law

2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Yesterday the famous bank robber, Michael Arch, robbed another bank in the centre of our city. As usual, he only stole 10 pounds. If he 1 (leave) any clues, he 2 (be) imprison now, but he is much too clever. He disconnected the security cameras; if he 3 (not/do) that, the police 4 (have) him on film now. The strange thing is, Arch doesn’t seem to be interested in the money; if he 5 (be), he 6 (can/steal) thousands of pounds by now. The police are determined to catch him, and the Chief is confident that they will. He says that if he 7 (think) they weren’t going to arrest Arch eventually, he 8 (leave) the police force long ago.

GLOSSARY:

UNIT 1

advising to give someone official information about something
advocate a lawyer who defends someone in a court of law
advocacy public support for or recommendation of a particular cause or policy
apply to to request something, usually officially, especially by writing or sending in a form
application a formal request to an authority
barrister a person called to the bar and entitled to practise as an advocate, particularly in the higher courts
Chambers a judge's private office
civility formal politeness and courtesy in behavior or speech
competence the ability to do something successfully or efficiently
Conflict of Laws a set of procedural rules which determine which legal system, and the law of which jurisdiction, applies to a given dispute
Constitutional Law a body of law dealing with the distribution and exercise of government power
conveyancing the process of moving the legal ownership of property or land from one person to another
county court a local law court in England and in some parts of the US which deals with cases that do not involve serious crime
Crown Court a law court in England or Wales where criminal cases are judged by a judge and jury
Curriculum Vitae (CV) a brief account of a person's education, qualifications, and previous occupations, typically sent with a job application
database a large amount of information stored in a computer system in such a way that it can be easily looked at or changed
defamation the action of damaging the good reputation of someone
defence a defending party or group in a court of law
degree the qualification given to a student who has done this course
disclosure the action of making new or secret information known
drafting writing something such as a legal document, speech or letter that may have changes made to it before it is finished
drafting of pleadings prepare a project of the document for the preliminary judicial proceeding
ensure make certain of obtaining or providing something
insurance an agreement in which you pay a company money and they pay your costs if you have an accident, injury, etc
European Economic Community Law a body of treaties, law and court judgements which operates alongside the legal systems of the European Union's member states
ethics a system of accepted beliefs which control behaviour, especially such a system based on morals
evidence Law information drawn from personal testimony, a document, or a material object, used to establish facts in a legal investigation or admissible as testimony in a law court
experience the knowledge or skill acquired by a period of practical experience of something, especially that gained in a particular profession
expertise expert skill or knowledge in a particular field
fall behind to fail to do something fast enough or on time
Family Law an area of the law that deals with family-related issues and domestic relations
fringe benefits an extra benefit supplementing an employee's money wage or salary, for example a company car, private health care
full-time job work done for the whole of a working week
get on with to be on good terms with smb
graduate a person who has successfully completed a course of study or training
have full rights of audience the right to process the case in court
High Court law court in England and Wales for trials of civil rather than criminal cases and where decisions made in regional courts can be considered again
Inn of Court each of the four legal societies having the exclusive right of admitting people to the English bar
integrity the state of being whole and undivided
International Law the term commonly used for referring to laws that govern the conduct of independent nations in their relationships with one another
interviewing a conversation between the lawyer and the client especially for consultation
Jurisprudence the theory or philosophy of law
Law of Contract the body of legal rules governing the conclusion and consequences of contracts
Law of Tort a branch of the law which covers civil wrongs, such as defamation and trespassing, among many other transgressions
lawyer a person who practises or studies law, especially (in the UK) a solicitor or a barrister or (in the US) an attorney
lay dilettante
lease to make a legal agreement by which money is paid in order to use land, a building, a vehicle or a piece of equipment for an agreed period of time
liable having (legal) responsibility for something or someone
look up the law examine the law questions
Magistrates’ court court of petty sessions, formerly known as a police court, is the lowest level of court in England and Wales and many other common law jurisdictions
magistrate a judge in a court for minor crimes
Master’ s degree an advanced college or university degree
Mock Trial an act or imitation trial
mortgage an agreement which allows you to borrow money from a bank or similar organization, especially in order to buy a house or apartment, or the amount of money itself
negotiating to try to reach an agreement by discussing something in a formal way, especially in a business or political situation
notary a person authorized to perform certain legal formalities, especially to draw up or certify contracts, deeds, and other documents for use in other jurisdictions
optional subjects additional, extra subjects
part-time job a job for only part of the usual working day or week
personnel people employed in an organization or engaged in an organized undertaking such as military service
postgraduate relating to or denoting a course of study undertaken after completing a first degree
pro bono the term, that is generally used to describe professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment as a public service
promotion activity that supports or encourages a cause, venture, or aim
prosecution the institution and conducting of legal proceedings against someone in respect of a criminal charge
Queen’s Counsel a senior barrister appointed on the recommendation of the Lord Chancellor
recruitment agencies an organization which matches employers to employees
Roman Law the legal system of ancient Rome, and the legal developments which occurred before the seventh century AD — when the Roman –Byzantine state adopted Greek as the language of government
run an office to have one’s own office
solicitor in the UK, a lawyer, who gives legal advice, writes legal contracts and represents people in the lower courts of law
Supreme Court the highest judicial court in a country or state
talk someone into induce (someone) to do something through reasoning or argument
tenancy possession of land or property, rented from a landlord
The Executive the branch of a government responsible for putting decisions or laws into effect
The State Law a body of law dealing with the distribution and exercise of government power
time-consuming work a work taking a long time to do
sue to institute legal proceedings against (a person or institution), typically for redress
trial a formal examination of evidence by a judge, typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings
turn down to reject
unbiased showing no prejudice for or against something; impartial
will an official statement of what a person has decided should be done with their money and property after their death

UNIT 2

abuse to use or treat someone or something wrongly or badly, especially in a way that is to your own advantage
acquit to decide officially in a court of law that someone is not guilty of a particular crime
adjudicate to act as judge in a competition or argument, or to make a formal decision about something
adjudication to act as judge in a competition or argument, or to make a formal decision about something
administration the arrangements and tasks needed to control the operation of a plan or organization
admit to agree that something is true, especially unwillingly
adoption the act of legally taking a child to be looked after as your own
clarification an explanation or more details which makes something clear or easier to understand
clerk of the court a person who works in an court, dealing with records or performing general office duties
coroner an official who examines the reasons for a person's death, especially if it was violent or unexpected
custody the legal right or duty to care for someone or something, especially a child after its parents have separated or died
defendant a person in a law case who is accused of having done something illegal
dispute an argument or disagreement, especially an official one between, for example, workers and employers or two countries with a common border
divorce when a marriage is ended by an official or legal process
inquiry the process of asking or questioning
guardianship the state or duty of being a guardian
indict if a law court or a grand jury indicts someone, it accuses them officially of a crime
indictment a reason for giving blame
jurisdiction the authority of an official organization to make and deal with especially legal decisions
juror a member of a jury
jury a group of people who have been chosen to listen to all the facts in a trial in a law court and to decide whether a person is guilty or not guilty, or whether a claim has been proved
litigation the process of taking a case to a law court so that an official decision can be made
maintenance financial support or supply of necessities given by one party to another such as upon a divorce of legal separation
manslaughter the crime of killing a person by someone who did not intend to do it or who cannot be responsible for their actions
matrimonial related to marriage or people who are married
negligence when you do not give enough care or attention to someone or something
offence an illegal act; a crime
outline the main shape or edge of something, without any details
penalty a punishment, or the usual punishment, for doing something that is against a law
plaintiff someone who makes a legal complaint against someone else in court
prosecute to officially accuse someone of committing a crime in a court of law, or (of a lawyer) to try to prove that a person accused of committing a crime is guilty of that crime
reassessment when you judge or decide the amount, value, quality or importance of something, or the judgment or decision that is made another way
Recorder a municipal judge with criminal jurisdiction of first instance and sometimes limited civil jurisdiction
trial the hearing of statements and showing of objects, etc. in a court of law to judge whether a person is guilty of a crime or to decide a case or a legal matter
verdict an opinion or decision made after judging the facts that are given, especially one made at the end of a trial
summary offence also known as a petty crime, is a criminal act in some common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded with, summarily: without the right to a jury trial and/or indictment (required for an indictable offence)
Queen's Bench Division the largest of the three divisions and primarily deals with civil matters arising out of contract law and the law of tort
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary (Law Lords) one of eleven lords who are paid to sit as members of the House of Lords when it acts as a Court of Appeal
Lord Chancellor the second highest ranking of the Great Officers of State, ranking only after the Lord High Steward. He is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister
Lord Justice of Appeal an ordinary judge of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, the court that hears appeals from the High Court of Justice, and represents the second highest level of judge in the courts of England and Wales
JP (Justice of Peace) lay judicial officer who is appointed to conserve peace, hear and determine charges relating to minor offenses (summary offenses), sign arrest warrants and search warrants, administer oaths, take statutory declarations, and carry out civil functions such as performing marriage ceremonies. He or she may also serve as a magistrate
interlocutory proceeding made during the course of a proceeding
House of Lords the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Highest Court of Appeal the highest court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal
domestic case the case which is connected with pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family, friends or cohabitation
discharge a case a sentence of a person found guilty of a crime in which that person does not receive a criminal record of conviction, either absolutely or conditionally
Crown Court juror ordinary members of the public between the ages of 18 and 70 who are selected at random from electoral register
Chancery Division deals with business law, trusts law, probate law, and land law in relation to issues of equity. It has specialist courts (the Patents Court and the Companies Court) which deal with intellectual property and company law matters respectively

UNIT 3

accomplice a partner in a crime or wrongdoing
accused the person or group of people who have been officially accused of a crime or offence in a court of law
actus reus an offense
alarm warning, alert, danger- or distress-signal; tocsin, bell, gong, siren, whistle, horn
arson the act of maliciously setting fire to property
arsonist someone who commits the crime of arson
assault attack, onslaught, onset, charge, offensive, blitzkrieg, blitz, strike, raid, incursion, sortie; aggression
balaclava (in full Balaclava helmet) a tight woolen garment covering the whole head and neck except for parts of the face
battery law the crime of hitting someone  
burglary breaking and entering the dwelling house of another, in the nighttime, with intent to commit a felony therein, whether the felonious purpose be accomplished or not
carjacking the crime of using a weapon to force the driver of a car to drive you somewhere or give you their car
charge with finding of guilt, attributing blame, imputation
charge an official statement made by the police saying that they believe someone may be guilty of a crime charge against He was found guilty of all six charges against him.
commission the act of committing a crime
commit suicide if a person commits suicide, they kill themselves.
common-law marriage a relationship that is considered to be a marriage because the man and woman have lived together for a long time
community service work that people do to help other people without payment, and which young criminals whose crime was not serious enough for them to be put in prison are sometimes ordered to do
confidence trick deceive anyone's expectation or confidence
culprit someone who has done something wrong
dead no longer living; deprived of life: dead people; dead flowers; dead animals
death the end of life
deceit (an act of) keeping the truth hidden, especially to get an advantage
deceitful misleading; fraudulent: a deceitful action.
detention maintenance of a person in custody or confinement, especially while awaiting a court decision
deter to prevent; check; arrest
deference formal polite behaviour that shows that you respect someone and are therefore willing to accept their opinions or judgment
distinguishing feature  
escape to get away from a place or dangerous situation
fine to make someone pay money as a punishment
flee to leave somewhere very quickly, in order to escape from danger
foil rob the premises or a person
forgery a mimic of a document or any other thing
gang a group of criminals who work together
gangster a member of a violent group of criminals
getaway car car located in the search
grievous bodily harm serious harm caused to human health, and which provides for criminal liability
guilt responsibility and blame for something bad that has happened
guilty mind intent motivating criminal act
strict liability offence crime involves great responsibility
suspect to think that something bad has happened or is happening
suspended sentence conviction for which the offender serves his sentence outside the penitentiary
thief someone who steals things from another person or place
threaten to say that you will cause someone harm or trouble if they do not do what you want
haul to pull something heavy with a continuous steady movement
homicide the crime of killing smb deliberately
in cold blood coldly, in cold blood (in a cold unemotional manner) "he killed her in cold blood"
injury any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.
joyriding the action or practice of driving fast and dangerously in a stolen car for enjoyment
justify show or prove to be right or reasonable
kidnapping take (someone) away illegally by force, typically to obtain a ransom
knowingly in a way that suggests one has secret knowledge or awareness
liability the state of being responsible for something, esp. by law
make off run away; usually includes taking something or somebody along
malice the intention or desire to do evil; ill will
malicious characterized by malice; intending or intended to do harm
mens rea the intention or knowledge of wrongdoing that constitutes part of a crime, as opposed to the action or conduct of the accused
mug to attack smb violently in order to steal their money, especially in a public place
mugger a person who attacks and robs another in a public place
omission of crime in the criminal law, failure to act, will constitute an actus reus (Latin for "guilty act") and give rise to liability only when the law imposes a duty to act and the defendant is in breach of that duty
omission the act of not including or doing something
onus used to refer to something that is one's duty or responsibility
onus of burden of proof the obligation to prove an assertion or allegation one makes
pickpocket a person who steals money etc. from other people’s pockets, especially in crowded places
pickpocketing stealing from other people's pockets
plot secretly make plans to carry out (an illegal or harmful action)
pounce spring forward suddenly so as to attack or seize someone or something
prearranged plan a plan, arranged or agreed upon (something) in advance
probation a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them; a defendant found guilty of a crime is released by the court without imprisonment subject to conditions imposed by the court; "probation is part of the sentencing process"
punch strike with the fist
raider a person who attacks an enemy in the enemy's territory; a marauder
ransom a sum of money or other payment demanded or paid for the release of a prisoner
rape the crime, committed by a man, of forcing another person to have sexual intercourse with him without their consent and against their will, esp. by the threat or use of violence against them
rapist a man who commits rape
recklessness the trait of giving little thought to danger
redress remedy or compensation for a wrong or grievance
rob take property unlawfully from (a person or place) by force or threat of force
robbery the action of robbing a person or place
seek attempt to find (something)
shoplifter a thief who steals goods that are in a store
shoplifting theft of goods from a retail establishment
sneak move or go in a furtive or stealthy manner
vandal a person who deliberately destroys or damages public or private property
vandalism willful wanton and malicious destruction of the property of others
victim a person harmed, injured, or killed as a result of a crime, accident, or other event or action
wrongdoer a person who behaves illegally or dishonestly; an offender
wrongdoing illegal or dishonest behavior

UNIT 4

Home Secretary the British cabinet minister who is head of the Home Office
hostile showing strong dislike
hostility a hostile (very unfriendly) disposition
ill-treat mishandle
Inspector a British police officer below a superintendent and above a sergeant in rank.
interrogation a sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply; formal systematic questioning
intimidation the act of making timid or fearful or of deterring by threats
law-abiding adhering strictly to laws and rules and customs
moderation quality of being moderate and avoiding extremes
patrol maintain the security of by carrying out a control
personal search to examine the person or personal effects of in order to find something lost or concealed
police power the civil force of a State, responsible for maintaining public order
prejudice a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
riot a public act of violence by an unruly mob
sample a small part of something intended as representative of the whole
scare cause fear
search the activity of looking thoroughly in order to find something or someone
sergeant a police officer ranking below inspector
Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer section of a statutory police force in the United Kingdom or some Crown dependencies
stern severe and unremitting in making demands
superintendent a British police officer above the rank of inspector.
suspect a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law
suspicion doubt about someone's honesty
suspicious openly distrustful and unwilling to confide
testify give testimony in a court of law
traffic warden a person whose job is to make certain that people do not leave their cars in places where they are not allowed to leave them, or for longer than they allowed to leave them

UNIT 5

to abolish to do away with (laws, regulations, customs, etc); put an end to
aggravated kidnapping carrying off and hold (a person), usually for ransom, which is made more serious by its circumstances
aircraft hijacking seizing possession or control of an aircraft esp. by forcing the pilot to divert the aircraft to another destination
to apprehend to arrest and escort into custody; seize
cell a small simple room in a prison
confession a formal, usually written, acknowledgment of guilt by a person accused of a crime.
criminal responsibility legal accountability for committing a crime
decapitation a mode of executing capital punishment by which the head is severed from the body.
delinquent offending by neglect or violation of duty or law
to deny to state that something declared or believed to be true is not true
to disown to refuse to acknowledge as belonging or pertaining to oneself; deny the ownership of or responsibility for
electrocution executing a convicted criminal by electricity
enquiry an investigation, especially a formal one conducted into a matter of public concern by a body constituted for that purpose by a government, local authority, or other organization
execution putting to death as fulfillment of a judicial death sentence
felony a crime that has a greater punishment imposed by statute than that imposed on a misdemeanor; a federal crime for which the punishment may be death or imprisonment for more than a year
firing squad a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.
flaw an imperfection, defect, or blemish
gas chamber method of executing condemned prisoners by lethal gas
guillotine a device for beheading persons, consisting of a weighted blade set between two upright posts
guilty having committed an offence or adjudged to have done so
hanging the form of capital punishment carried out by suspending one by the neck from a gallows, gibbet, or the like, until dead.
heavy sentence severe sentence
inmate a person confined in an institution (as a prison or hospital
innocent not guilty
insanity unsoundness of mind or lack of the ability to understand that prevents one from having the mental capacity required by law to enter into a particular relationship, status, or transaction or that releases one from criminal or civil responsibility
isolation the act of isolating or the state of being isolated.
jail a place of confinement for persons held in lawful custody
law-enforcement bodies government agencies responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
lethal injection the act or instance of injecting a drug for purposes of capital punishment or euthanasia
life imprisonment a sentence of imprisonment until death
neglect a disregard of duty resulting from carelessness, indifference, or willfulness
penal system system relating to the punishments of criminals
plea an allegation of fact in civil litigation made in response to a claim
to rehabilitate to restore (as a convicted criminal defendant) to a useful and constructive place in society through therapy, job training, and other counseling
release to relieve or free from obligation, liability, or responsibility released from all dischargeable debts
retribution punishment imposed (as on a convicted criminal) for purposes of repayment or revenge for the wrong committed
to revenge to take vengeance for; inflict punishment for
rough treatment cruel (inhuman, outrageous) treatment
self-inflicted death suicide
severe harsh; unnecessarily extreme
smuggle to import or export secretly and illegally esp. to avoid paying duties or to evade enforcement of laws
statement an official or formal report or declaration
stoning a form of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the person dies.
strangle to kill by compressing the windpipe; throttle
To strap to tie or bind with a strap
sword a weapon having various forms but consisting typically of a long, straight or slightly curved blade, sharp-edged on one or both sides, with one end pointed and the other fixed in a hilt or handle.
tarnish to diminish or destroy the purity of; stain; sully
treason the offense of attempting to overthrow the government of one's country or of assisting its enemies in war
warder an official having charge of prisoners in a jail.
whipping to beat with a strap, lash, rod, or the like, especially by way of punishment or chastisement
wound a physical injury to the body consisting of a laceration or breaking of the skin or mucous membrane

KEYS:

UNIT 1

Lead-in: advising; Master’s degree; advocacy; barrister; conveyancing; defence; drafting of pleadings; articled clerk; full-time job; graduate; have full rights of audience; notary; Queen’s Counsel; solicitor; Law course; will; lawyer; Law Society examination; negotiating; interviewing

Task 1: 1. c; 2 h; 3a; 4 I; 5. f; 6.j 8b; 9d; 10. e

Task 2: 1 – a; 2. – a; 3. – b; 4. – a; 5. – b; 6. – b; 7. – a; 8. – b; 9. – a; 10. – a

Task3: 1 joined, advises, representing; 2 undertaking; 3 advise on, negotiate, draft, litigate; 4 drafting, advising on, resolving; 5 reviewing, drafting, meeting with, answering; 6 supervising; 7 reading and analyzing, determine; 8 drafted, submitted, secure; 9 write, form, granted; 10 defending, enforcing; 11 advising; 12 working with, doing; 13 litigation, bringing; 14 drafting; 15 require, meet; 16 had; 17 completed, specializes; 18 resolving, handling, concerning; 19 navigating, apply to.

Task 4: 1. a high level of trust; 2. are subject to standardized examination; 3. competence; 4. insufficient; 5. requirement; 6.Bar Final examination; 7. Law Society Final examination; 8. preparatory course; 9.covering a wide area of law; 10.articled clerk; 11.closely supervised by an experienced lawyer; 12. pupil

Task 5: 1. PROFESSIONAL; 2. ADMITTED; 3. DIVISION; 4. CHARACTERISTIC; 5. GOVERNING; 6. PRIMARILY; 7. EXCLUSIVE; 8. APPEAR; 9. SIGNIFICANT; 10. EXPERIENCED

Task 6: Solicitors: 5, 6, 3; Barristers: 7, 2, 4, 1

Task 7: Solicitors: Advocacy in the lower courts; advising clients on general legal issues; advising on tax matters; commercial work; conveyancing of houses; dealing with commercial transactions; making wills; preparing cases; share and other property dealings.

Barristers: advocacy in all courts; advising clients on specialist legal issues; advising on litigation; drafting of documents in connection with litigation

Task 8: 1.b; 2. a; 3. b; 4.c; 5. b


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