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CONTENTS




Передмова .................................................................... 10

Fundamentals ................................................................ 13

1. Basic units of language and speech ............................ 13

2. Word as a basic language unit.
The structure of words ............................................................. 16

3. The classification of words ........................................ 20

4. The combinability of words ....................................... 21

5. The notions of grammatical opposition
and grammatical category ........................................................ 23

6. Part of speech as one of the main
grammatical notions ................................................................. 27

7. Contrastive studies of languages ................................ 30

8. Contrastive linguistics as a science and an academic discipline: its subject matter and tasks 34

9. Contrastive grammar as a part of contrastive
linguistics: its tasks .................................................................. 38

10. Methods of research, used in contrastive studies ...... 41

11. The problem of the language-etalon
for comparison (tertium comparationis) ................................... 46

12. Parts of speech classification in English
and Ukrainian languages .......................................................... 48

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ......................... 52

Morphology

Chapter 1. Noun as a part of speech
in English and Ukrainian languages...................................... 54

1. Noun as a part of speech: general characteristics ....... 54

2. The category of number ............................................. 59

3. The category of case .................................................. 64

4. The category of gender .............................................. 71

5. The category of the names of living beings
and lifeless objects .................................................................. 73

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ......................... 75

Chapter 2. Adjective as a part of speech
in English and Ukrainian languages...................................... 79

1. Adjective as a part of speech: general
characteristics. Grammatical categories of adjective ................ 79

2. Degrees of comparison of adjectives ......................... 84

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ......................... 89

Chapter 3. Numeral as a part of speech
in English and Ukrainian languages...................................... 94

1. Numeral as a part of speech: general characteristics ... 94

2. Grammatical categories of numeral ............................ 97

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 100

Chapter 4. Pronoun as a part of speech
in English and Ukrainian languages.................................... 103

1. Pronoun as a part of speech: general characteristics. Grammatical categories of pronoun 103

2. Personal and possessive pronouns ........................... 107

3. Reflexive and strengthening pronouns ..................... 113

4. Demonstrative pronouns .......................................... 115

5. Interrogative and relative pronouns .......................... 116

6. Indefinite and negative pronouns ............................. 118

7. Allomorphic classes of pronouns
in English and Ukrainian languages ....................................... 120

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 123

Chapter 5. Verb as a part of speech
in English and Ukrainian languages.................................... 125

1. Verb as a part of speech: general characteristics ...... 125

2. The category of person ............................................ 132

3. The category of number and the category of gender 136

4. The category of aspect ............................................. 138

5. The category of tense ............................................... 143

5.1. The Present Tense ............................................ 147

5.2. The Past Tense ................................................. 149

5.3. The Future Tense. The tense form “Future-in-the-past” and sequence of tenses of the English language ....................................................................... 150

6. The category of voice .............................................. 153

6.1. The passive voice ............................................ 157

6.2. The reflexive voice .......................................... 159

7. The category of mood .............................................. 161

7.1. The Indicative and Imperative moods ........... 162

7.2. The Conditional mood .................................. 164

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 167

Chapter 6. Non-finite forms of the verb in English
and Ukrainian languages..................................................... 175

1. Non-finite forms of the verb: general characteristics 175

2. Infinitive in English and Ukrainian languages .......... 177

3. The English participle versus Ukrainian
дієприкметник and дієприслівник ........................................ 182

4. The English gerund .................................................. 190

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 193

Chapter 7. Adverb as a part of speech
in English and Ukrainian languages.................................... 197

1. Adverb as a part of speech: general characteristics .. 197

2. Degrees of comparison of adverbs ........................... 201

3. Words of the category of state (statives or adlinks) .. 202

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 205

Chapter 8. Functional parts of speech
in English and Ukrainian languages.................................... 210

1. Preposition as a part of speech
in English and Ukrainian languages ....................................... 210

2. Conjunction as a part of speech in English
and Ukrainian languages ........................................................ 214

3. Particle as a part of speech in English
and Ukrainian languages ........................................................ 216

4. Modal words as a part of speech in English
and Ukrainian languages ........................................................ 217

5. Interjection as a part of speech in English
and Ukrainian languages ........................................................ 218

6. The English article .................................................... 220

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 224

Syntax

Chapter 9. Syntax: introduction into basic notions.... 232

1. Sentence as the basic unit of syntax ......................... 232

2. The expression of syntactic relations ....................... 235

3. The classification of sentences as to their structure .. 236

4. One-member sentences ............................................ 237

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 238

Chapter 10. The simple sentence.
Parts of the sentence............................................................ 241

1. The subject ............................................................... 241

2. The predicate ........................................................... 244

2.1. The simple predicate ......................................... 244

2.2. The compound nominal predicate ..................... 245

2.3. The compound verbal predicate ........................ 246

3. The object ................................................................ 247

3.1. The direct object ............................................... 247

3.2. The indirect object ............................................ 249

4. The attribute ............................................................. 250

5. The adverbial modifier ............................................. 251

6. Complex parts of the sentence ................................. 253

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 260

Chapter 11. The composite sentence. The compound sentence 266

1. The composite sentence ........................................... 266

2. The compound sentence with conjunctions .............. 267

2.1. The copulative compound sentence .................. 267

2.2. The disjunctive compound sentence ................. 270

2.3. The adversative compound sentence ................ 270

2.4. The causative-consecutive compound sentences 272

2.5. Compound sentences with the meaning
of suddenness ........................................................................ 273

3. Compound sentences with asyndetically
joined clauses ........................................................................ 273

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 274

Chapter 12. The composite sentence.
The complex sentence........................................................... 277

1. The subject clause .................................................... 278

2. The predicative clause .............................................. 279

3. The objective clause ................................................. 279

4. Attributive clauses .................................................... 280

5. Adverbial clauses ..................................................... 281

5.1. Adverbial clauses of place ................................ 281

5.2. Adverbial clauses of time ................................. 282

5.3. Adverbial clauses of manner
(attending circumstances) ...................................................... 283

5.4. Adverbial clauses of measure or degree ........... 284

5.5. Adverbial clauses of purpose ........................... 284

5.6. Adverbial clauses of cause ............................... 284

5.7. Adverbial clauses of condition ......................... 285

5.8. Adverbial clauses of concession ....................... 286

5.9. Adverbial clauses of result ............................... 286

Discussion questions and exercise tasks ....................... 287

Conclusion ................................................................... 291

References ................................................................... 293

Further suggested readings ......................................... 295

 







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