Студопедия — The simple predicate
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The simple predicate






The predicate is the member of a predication containing the mood and tense (or only mood) components of predicativity. E.g.: I would hate to make you cry.

The predicate can be a word or a syntactical word-morpheme (in English – does, will).

When a predicate is a semi-notional verb or a syntactical word-morpheme, it is only a structural predicate and is usually connected with a notional word which makes the notional predicate, e.g: He was strong enough for that. Does anyone know about it but me? [24; 254–255].

Since the conjugation of the English verb has a lot of analytical forms the characteristic feature of the English simple predicate is the fact that it can be expressed in many cases by analytical verb forms. In Ukrainian it happens rather rarely since the availability of analytical verb forms is not numerous here.

The simple predicate of the English sentence includes as well predicates expressed by the verb with the postpositive attachment of the type stand up, as well as idiomatic word combinations, which have the meaning of the common verbal lexeme, e.g.: give way – поступатися, take courage – зважитися, have a smoke – покурити etc. In connection with this the analytical expression of the predicate is still more widespread in English.

In both languages the predicate reveals its syntactic connection with the subject by means of the grammatical agreement with it (узгодження). But since the English verb has much fewer categorical forms (in particular the form of persons, gender and number) the possibilities of coordination between the subject and the predicate are much fewer.

The predicate in the English sentence always has its certain place depending on the type of the sentence. In the affirmative sentence it stands after the subject, e.g.: He came here in the morning. In interrogative sentences the simple predicate is mainly expressed analytically, where the help verb is placed before the subject, whereas its notional part stands after it: Did he come here in the morning?

By this fact the English language differs not only from the Ukrainian, but also from a lot of other languages: Russian, French, German and others. While in these languages at questioning only the intonation and the word order is changed, in English the form of the verb itself is changed: instead of the synthetic form the analytical one is used: You know him. Do you know him? [5; 125–126].

When comparing the predicates in English and in Ukrainian, we must first of all note the absence of syntactical word-morphemes used as predicates and the scarcity of word-morphemes in Ukrainian. So the division into structural and notional (parts of) predicates is not as essential in Ukrainian as it is in English.

Secondly, there are many more sentences without finite verbs in Ukrainian than in English. Він студент. Вона красуня. Кому їхати?

Thirdly, Ukrainian predication contains a predicate without a subject much more often than in English.

2.2. The compound nominal predicate ( складений iменний присудок ).

The peculiarity of all eastern-Slavonic languages, including Ukrainian, is the fact that they mostly do not use the linking verb бути in the present tense: Скромність – його характерна риса. In English the linking verb be is never omitted since it is caused by the necessity to finish the sentence structurally.

Among linking verbs of the Ukrainian language the linking verb бути has the smallest lexical load. The rest of linking words point towards the character of the realization of some characteristics of the subject expressed by the nominal part of the predicate that is predicative.

According to their meaning Ukrainian linking verbs are subdivided into such main groups:

1) Linking verbs showing the availability of a certain characteristic or state or the name of some object: бути, значити, зватися, називатися: Вона була вдовою.

2) Linking verbs showing that the object characteristic is the process of formation and is new to it: стати, ставати, робитися, зробитися, опинитися: Дуже ти став розумний.

3) Linking verbs showing the preservation of the previous state: лишатися, остатися: Лице його зоставалося спокійне.

4) Linking verbs showing the characteristic feature as unreal or ascribed: здаватися, вважатися, уявлятися: Він здавався мені хоробрим [5; 126–127].

The peculiarity of English linking verbs is the availability of such of them that are maximally expressing only the grammar meaning, not a lexical one: be, become, grow.

The classification of English linking verbs is in many ways similar to the mentioned Ukrainian one:

1) Linking verbs of “existence” (“буття”) showing the availability of a certain characteristic, its belonging to a certain class: be, feel, go, come, stand: The boy felt cold.

2) Linking verbs of “retaining” (“збереження”) of a certain characteristic: remain, keep, hold, stay, rest, continue: They hold strong is spite of difficulties.

3) Linking verbs of “becoming” (“становлення"): become, turn, get, grow, come, go, make (and others): Becoming aware of the approaching danger she turned pale.

2.3. The compound verbal predicate (складений дієслівний присудок ).

This type of compound predicate also consists of two parts: the auxiliary part expressed by the verb in the personal form and the notional part expressed by the infinitive (sometimes gerund) of another verb rendering the action of the subject.

In both languages the compound verbal predicate can usually be of three kinds:

1) Modal, formed by combining of the modal verbs with the infinitive: We can speak English. Ми можемо відпочити.

2) Aspect, in which the auxiliary part points towards the beginning, end, continuation, repetition or becoming of some action performed by the subject: She began singing. Сонце почало підніматися.

3) Nominal-verbal modal predicate, in which the infinitive is attached to the compound nominal predicate, the nominal part of which is expressed by adjective or participle and points towards relation to the action expressed by the infinitive: I am obliged to do my best. Необхідно рушати вперед [5; 128–129].







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Studopedia.info - Студопедия - 2014-2024 год . (0.012 сек.) русская версия | украинская версия