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The philosophical foundation of the criminal justice system remains to protect the innocent and to ensure that the truth emerges for any matter before the court, thereby ensuring that justice is done. While crime laboratory scientists may pride themselves as being "independent finders of fact," most operate under police ju­risdiction or administration, and many scien­tists, perhaps unconsciously, develop the attitude that they work exclusively for the best interest of the police or the prosecutor.

When emotions overcome reason, a zeal­ous forensic scientist may intentionally or in­advertently deny real justice. Results are misinterpreted, or worse, falsified. Such science may not be easy to spot, since it can only appear through the results of the scientific investigation. While no one can ever attain anything close to a perfect harmony of reason with emotion, forensic scientists at least have a political duty to strike the best balance possible under life's most difficult circumstances. Of course, completely satisfying this duty remains both difficult and elusive. The commitment to ethics should be stressed in the education of a forensic scientist. The values inherent in "good science," including both these moral elements and the nonmoral elements distinguishing reliable from unreli­able scientific practice, should be a part of of­ficial forensic scientific curricula.

In the practical world, only the competence and rigorous honesty of the individuals pre­serve the philosophical basis of the criminal justice system designed to protect the inno­cent and expose the truth about complex ac­tions. The system works if, and only if, morally hon­est individuals hold key positions of power.

Without high ethical standards, forensic scientists may become what is known in the profession as hired guns*. The student considering this profession should resist the temptation of sellingwhat­ever opinion is needed by defenсe or prosecu­tion. Properly educated, experienced scientists may also act as gunslingers** through ignorance or misapplication of method. This might involve purposefully omit­ting relevant tests or suppressing relevant re­sults. Many such experts may develop an entirely unjustified sense of their own scien­tific abilities and observational powers.

In the real forensic sciences, individual scientists always work as members of a larger team, perhaps with other specialized scien­tists, law enforcement investigators, prosecu­tors, defenсe attorneys, judges, juries and the media, each contributing his or her efforts to­ward the bigger picture of a public trial, or an investigation capturing the public interest. The job of a forensic scientist is not one of glamorous celebrity***.



* hired guns - a person, especially a professional killer, employed to kill-someone. The noun gun has been slang for a professional criminal since the mid-1800s.

**gunslinger, is a 20th century name, used in cinema or literature, referring to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation as being dangerous with a gun.

*** a celebrityis a person who is easily recognized in a society or culture.



2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты русским словам и словосочетаниям.


Система уголовного судопроизводства, ученые-криминалисты, прокурор, здравый смысл, намеренно или нечаянно, фальсифицировать, научное исследование, трудный для понимания, связь с этикой, учебный план, искушение, невежество (незнание), следователи правоохранительных органов, адвокаты, присяжные, судебный процесс.



3. Переведите на русский язык словосочетания из текста.


1. to protect the innocent

2. to ensure the truth

3. to operate under police ju­risdiction

4. to develop the attitude

5. to do justice

6. to deny real justice

7. to strike the best balance

8. to distinguish reliable from unreli­able scientific practice

9. to omit­ relevant tests

10. to contribute his or her efforts


Дополните предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста и переведите их на русский язык.

1. When emotions overcome reason, ………………. .

2. Most crime laboratory scientists operate under ……………… .

3. Forensic scientists at least have a political duty …………………. .

4. The values inherent in "good science,"………………….. .

5. The system works if, ……………….. .

6. ………………….. what is known in the profession as hired guns.

7. Properly educated, experienced scientists may also act as ………………. .

8. The job of a forensic scientist is …………………. .


5. Работа в подгруппах (3 -4 человека). Каждая подгруппа составляет по одному общему и специальному вопросу к каждому абзацу текста. Один представитель от каждой подгруппы отвечает на них. За каждый правильно составленный вопрос и правильный ответ подруппа получает один балл. Победителем объявляется подгруппа, получившая максимальное количество баллов. Преподаватель выступает в качестве арбитра.



6. Соотнесите слова из рамки и их определения.




a) Public official vested with the authority to hear, determine, and preside over legal matters brought in court.

b) Government attorney who presents the state's case against the defendant in a criminal process

c) A person who applies scientific knowledge and methodology to legal problems and criminal investigations.

d) Branch of philosophy that seeks to determine the correct application of moral notions such as good and bad and right and wrong

e) The upholding of what is just, especially fair treatment and due reward in accordance with honor, standards, or law.

f) A person with a high degree of skill in or knowledge of a certain subject.

g) Examination of evidence and applicable law by a competent tribunal to determine the issue of specified charges or claims.

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