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PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL ASPECT PREDICATE




The infinitive is used in this function after verbs denoting the beginning, continuation or cessation of an action. The verbs include: begin, start, cease, continue:

• It began to rain.

For more details about these verbs see the Gerund section.


OBJECT

The infinitive is very often used in this function. We find it:

1) used directly after verbs;

2) with an object between the infinitive and the verb;

3) used after predicative adjectives;

4) preceded by a wh-word;

5) introduced by it.

manage mean  
deserve desire expect fail fight forget grow help

1) Verbs followed directly by the infinitive:

afford

need neglect offer opt plan pledge prepare pretend promise refuse resolve scorn

agree

aim

arrange

ask

attempt

beg

care

choose (= 'decide') hesitate
claim hope

consent intend

dare learn

decide live

demand long

He asked to come with us.

Do not hesitate to ask questionsif you have any

He chose to pay no attentionto what she said.

This never failed to infuriate her.

He opted to support the movement.

I tend to go to bedrather late.

[struggled to stay awake.

She did not live to see the end of the war.

 


 


 




 


Минченков А. Г.

Most of these verbs can be used with the passive infinitive:

She refused to be deceived.

He deserves to be promoted.

The verbs claim, pretend, tend are quite often used with the perfect infinitive:

 

He claimed to have been there.

He pretended to have heardnothing. Notes:

1) The verb afford is always preceded by a modal verb:

• I can't afford to take such risks.

2) The verb arrange is used in the following patterns:

They arranged to meet at four o'clock.

I will arrange to meet you at the airport(= 'You will be met by someone').

• I will arrange for Jack to meet you at the airport(= 'Jack will meet you').

We will arrange with somebody else to buy these tickets.

3) The verb care followed by the infinitive is normally used in
negative or interrogative sentences:

• I don't care to see this show.

Would you care to have a drink with me?

4) For the use of dare, need, and help see Infinitive. Forms.

2) Verbs followed by an object + the infinitive:

 

advise defy help pay teach
allow enable inspire permit tell
ask encourage instruct persuade train
beg expect invite press trust
cause forbid lead prompt urge
challenge force leave recommend use
compel get order remind warn

I encouraged her to tell the truth.


Verbals

She challenged me to race her to the corner.

I defy anyone to say that I am wrong.

It has led me to change my attitude.

They paid him to be silent.

She reminded me to lock the door.

It prompted me to visit the doctor.

• I trust them to solve the problem.

Notes:

1) As is clear from (1), the verbs ask, beg, expect and help can
also be followed directly by a full infinitive:

He begged (us) to be allowed to stay.

2) Special attention should be paid to the verbs allow and permit.
Structures like *It allows to make the following conclusions are
incorrect. If there is no notional object, a formal one should be
inserted:

It allows us /oneto make the following conclusions.

3) The verb get is a causative verb, a synonym of the verbs make
and have. Unlike the latter, it is used with a full infinitive.
Depending on the context get can mean 'persuade', 'ask' or 'tell':

He got Ann to help them.

She got the maid to clean the room.

3) The infinitive is widely used as the object of the following predicative adjectives: glad, happy, lucky, surprised, sorry, curious, afraid, reluctant, pleased, etc:

• I am curious to know the news.

He is afraid to go there.

The perfect infinitive is sometimes used here to emphasize that the event preceded the emotional state:

• I was happy tohave been invited.

He was lucky to havebeen given the job.

She was sorry to have missedthe opportunity.


Минченков А. Г.


Verbals


 


Note:With afraid we can use both the infinitive and the gerund, but the meaning changes. For more details see the Gerund section.

4) We can often use a full infinitive after a wh-word. The
verbs used with this structure include:

ask explain know reveal tell

decide forget learn say think

describe guess realize see understand

discover imagine remember teach wonder

discuss

• I do not know how to open the door.

J can not decide whether togo or not.

He asked me which bus to take.

_

5)We can use the verbs consider, think, find, presume, believe,
hold, judge
and make with the pronoun it followed by an
adjective or noun and a full infinitive:

He thought it his duty to help them.

I find it hard to believe the story.

 

This made it possible to accept the invitation.

He made it a rule to get up at seven o'clock.

It here is introductory and introduces the real object, which is the infinitive.

 

6) There are a number of verbs with which we can use either the infinitive or the gerund, but with a change of meaning that can be slight or rather considerable. These verbs include:
a) remember, forget;    
b) like, love, prefer, hate;    
c) dread, regret;    
d) to be afraid;    
e) advise, intend, recommend;    
f) cannot bear;    
g) mean;    
h) try    

 


i) understand. The verbs will be dealt with in the Gerund section.

7) With the verbs come, go and find we can use either the infinitive or participle I depending on what we want to express. Detailed treatment of the difference will be given in the Participle section.


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