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THE INFINITIVE




EXERCISE 1. Use the infinitive in brackets in the appropriate form.

1. I am afraid it will be his destiny (throw out) in the street.

2. He tried various numbers at random, but without success. It was funny, he seemed (lose) his knack.

3. He was a lucky old man (buy) before art became a branch of greed.

4. He can not bear (remind) of what he might have missed.

5. His answers became increasingly brief, he hardly seemed (lis­ten) any more.

6. The old man began to confess he was a fool (spend) so much of his life in a city, (leave) himself so little time to enjoy this.

7. I liked in them the things they did not want (like) for.

8. "Well, there were worse types of human being. I might al­most claim (be) one myself, once, long ago."

9. This time Jean did not wait (attack).

 

10. I was not wholly surprised (hear) his voice on the telephone an hour later.

11. She sprang up from the armchair in which she appeared (doze).

12. "Oh Goodness, I seem (blurt out) the secret."

13. He is said (injure) in a car accident.

14. She was thought (shop) in Regent Street.

15. I am very sorry (involve) you in this.

16. She was prepared (think) unreasonable, but not silly.

17. He is a great talker not (trust) further.

18. There was an ad in our local paper put in by a man with a collection of stamps (sell).


Practice section

EXERCISE 2. Use either the full or the bare infinitive according to the context.

1. She made me (wait) for half an hour.

2. The pupil was made (revise) the new grammar rules.

3. She did not dare (argue) with the principal.

4. How dare you (come) gatecrashing like this!

5. She might have had her objections, but she dared not (say) a word.

6. I'd like you (join) us.

7. I think we should (start) early in the morning. It may (become) hot later.

8. I used (live) here when I was a child.

9. You need not (answer) today. You can (think) for a day or two.

 

10. Will you help me (write) this essay.

11. She refused (tell) us the truth.

12. I'd much rather not (go) to the party. I have a headache.

13. If you do not remember the spelling of the word, you'd better (look) it in the dictionary.

14. Her parents wanted her (learn) two foreign languages.

15. The earthquake measured only two. There was no damage done. I just felt my house (shake).

16. The burglars had the old lady (show) them where she kept her money.

17. As he had lost his key there was nothing (do) but (break) the door open.

18. Would you rather (stay) at home or (join) them?

19. It is much better (invest) your money in a business than (keep) it at home.

20. You had better (put) the money in a bank than (keep) it in a tea-pot.

21. She did not as much as (open) his letter, let alone (answer) it.

22. He heard the door (creak) and saw a shadow (steal) into the room.


 




Минченков А. Г.

23. She was heard (say) that she always voted Labour.

24. I need (help) my grandmother. She can't (do) it herself.

25. Do you need (see) the boss today? - Yes, I had better (do) it. There is some urgent business (discuss).

26. He is a very dependable man. I have never known him (let) anybody down.

27. She had the maid (bring) some tea.

28. The maid had (bring) the tea herself.

29. Why not (enjoy) the evening at home?

30. She asked why it was necessary (take) the tablets.

31. She does nothing but (find) fault with everybody around her.

32. He will do anything but (answer) the question directly.

33. I advised him (ask) a passer-by where (turn) to get to Regent Street.

34. Rather than (argue) for hours why don't you (look) in a reference book?

35. The only thing I could do was (check) myself.

36. The members of the Opposition could not help but (yield).

37. He tried (make) me (believe) he was my distant relation.

38. All you need (do) is (stand) back and let it (pass).

39. Why (worry)about me?

EXERCISE 3. Translate from Russian into English paying

special attention to the use of the bare infinitive.

1. Я не позволю ему вам грубить.

2. Я не позволю ей приходить в мой дом.

3. Она не позволяла сыну встречаться с Мэри.

4. Я не позволю сплетничать об этом.

5. Джек сказал, что никому не позволит клеветать на свою сестру.

6. Вам лучше сесть на поезд в пять часов.

7. Нам лучше спрятаться от дождя в беседке.


Practice section

8. Ей лучше остаться одной на некоторое время.

9. Тебе лучше не приглашать Джона на день рождения.

 

10. Тебе лучше взять с собой поменьше вещей.

11. Они бы лучше поискали собаку в парке.

12. Вы бы лучше держали язык за зубами.

13. Я думаю, мне лучше забрать ребенка из школы в пять часов.

14. Я, пожалуй, не стану пить этот сок. Мне не нравится, как он пахнет.

15. Я бы лучше послушал классическую музыку.

16. Я бы предпочел не отвечать вам.

17. Я бы предпочла не думать об этом.

18. Хотите поехать на машине? — Нет, я лучше прогуляюсь.

19. Я скорее переночую на вокзале, чем останусь еще минуту в этом доме.

20. Она сказала, что предпочла бы умереть, но не выйти замуж за нелюбимого человека.

21. Я, конечно, согласился, но, честное слово, я бы лучше отказался.

22. Лучше бы я не следовал их советам.

23. Чем без конца жаловаться на судьбу, лучше подумайте о том, что в жизни много приятных вещей.

24. Чем сплетничать про других, посмотрите лучше на себя.

25. Смотри не сломай телевизор совсем. Почему бы не позвать монтера, вместо того чтобы пытаться исправить самому.

26. Она пригрозила, что скорее откажется от работы совсем, чем позволит начальнику унижать себя.

27. Он не мог не сказать правды.

28. Они невольно заметили, что в отношениях между супругами есть некая напряженность.*

29. Люся не могла не отказаться.

30. Книга так ее растрогала, что она не могла не расплакаться.

31. Я не мог не поддержать ее.


 



* In sentences 28, 32, 33 use can't (couldn't) but


Минченков А. Г.

32. Я невольно думаю, что нам надо изменить тактику ведения предвыборной кампании.

33. Я невольно замечаю, что в политической жизни страны происходят положительные изменения.

34. Живи сам и давай жить другим.

35. Первобытные люди должны были обходиться тем, что давала им природа.

36. Помните, самое главное — не выпускайте из рук трос.

37. Она заставила меня все переделать.

38. Он сказал ей повторить послание (Use have).

39. Отец хотел бы, чтобы она училась в университете, но он не может заставить ее учиться.

40. Он заставил нас пообещать, что мы сохраним это в тайне.

41. Нас заставили подписать этот документ.

42. Что заставляет вас говорить неправду?

43. Я сделаю так, что он сам вам все расскажет.

44. Она только и делает, что спит.

45. Бабушка только и делает, что ворчит.

46. Эта огласка могла бы только навредить фирме.

47. Ты, кажется, только и делаешь, что ешь.

48. Ей ничего не оставалось, кроме как сходить в магазин самой.

49. Ему оставалось только повиноваться.

50. Мне ничего не остается, кроме как купить билет.

51. Их ребенок — вундеркинд. Он умеет все — только не сочиняет музыку.

52. Она, казалось, была готова на все, чтобы спасти его от тюрьмы — только что не сесть в тюрьму самой.

53. Единственное, что нам остается, — это попытаться выиграть время.

54. Она была так напугана, что не могла даже двинуться с места, не говоря уже о том, чтобы что-то предпринять.

55. Вам не нужно спрашивать разрешения.


Practice section

56. Как вы смеете вскрывать мои письма!

57. Она не посмела не выполнить приказ мистера Смита.

58. Пожалуйста, дайте мне знать о вашем решении как можно раньше.

59. Неужели он осмелился пререкаться с тобой?

60. Зачем устраивать такой скандал?

EXERCISE 4.Point out the infinitive, identify the structure it is used in and translate into Russian (Infinitive as Subject).

1. It seemed urgently necessary to speak.

2. It requires a good deal of superhuman wriggling to get out from under the steering wheel.

3. To be in company with somebody one dislikes must be truly painful.

4. I said it would be just as convenient for me to be a member of the team.

5. It would be wrong to show these letters around.

6. It does not need Sherlock Holmes to deduce something is up.

7. It might be difficult to talk privately tomorrow.

8. When I said it was essential for me to have a compartment to myself, he shook his head.

9. It was sad to see two intelligent men squabbling over such a trifle like children.

 

10. To walk down the road was for her a journey of exploration.

11. It was surprising to hear him talking to his partner with un­necessary sharpness.

12. It would be a very bad precedent to let the boy cut the end of term.

13. She had a great inclination to laugh. Oh, dear, how easy it was to get men to do what you wanted.

14. He felt at that moment such a love for the human race that it had never occurred to him to refuse.


 




Минченков А. Г.

15. It made me hot to realize that I might have been killed.

16. It was hard for me to believe they were exploiting the old man in any mercenary way.

17. We are delighted you have come. But it would not do to show that too obviously in front of Henry.

18. It needs a very strong faith to stand entirely alone.

19. It might be best to start now on what I intend doing.

EXERCISE 5.Translate into English paying special attention to the use of the Infinitive as Subject.

1. Вы поступили очень неосторожно, сказав ему об этом.

2. Справедливости ради надо сказать, что она заслуживает этого продвижения по службе.

3. Будет совершенно справедливо, если ребенка передадут на попечение матери.

4. Это пятно вывести невозможно.

5. Несправедливо обвинять его в этом.

6. Стоит более подробно изучить все улики.

7. Удивительно застать вас дома в такое время.

8. Бесполезно пытаться что-либо изменить. Сделанного не воротишь.

9. Было бы интересно посмотреть эти фотографии.

 

10. Смешно слышать это от вас.

11. Совершенно естественно, что теперь он пытается оправдать себя.

12. Это так похоже на него - пообещать и ничего не сделать.

13. Самое безопасное, по-моему, - это путешествовать поездом.

14. Скучно слушать ее рассказы о своих болезнях.

15. Ей было нелегко заставить себя примириться с этим.

16. Я думаю, ей будет приятно получить эти духи в качестве подарка на день рождения.

17. Мне удобнее ездить домой на автобусе, чем на трамвае.


Practice section

18. Разве это не преступление - лишить людей последних средств к существованию?

19. Было бы ошибкой доверять ему эту работу. Он еще молод и неопытен.

20. Вы поступили опрометчиво, не предупредив ее заранее.

21. Он правильно сделал, что передумал.

22. Она умно поступила, что вовремя вложила деньги в новое предприятие.

23. Я ужаснулся, увидев, в каких руинах лежал город во время войны.

24. Меня в жар бросило, когда я понял, какая опасность мне угрожала.

25. Ее бесила мысль о том, что у подруги есть новая шуба.

26. Требуется обладать огромным мужеством, чтобы принять этот вызов.

27. Потребовалось немало усилий и средств, чтобы восстановить экономику страны после войны.

28. Потребовалось немало уговоров, прежде чем она согласилась на этот брак.

29. Нам невыгодно враждовать с ними.

EXERCISE 6.Point out the infinitive and its structures in the function of the predicative or part of the predicative. Translate into Russian.

1. Perhaps the object of this campaign is to damage the firm.

2. It is not the part of Hamlet that is difficult to cast.

3. The effect was to make her look more than usually like a fruit ready for plucking.

4. The only thing to do is ignore the letters.

5. If there is anything I hate it is for the boy to look upon me as a spoil-sport and a tyrant.

6. One of the three things he particularly advised me not to do was to gamble.


 




Минченков А. Г.

7. All he wanted was for me to get out of his way.

8. Her attitude to this was hard to explain.

9. One way of not experiencing the feelings was never to use the instrument.

 

10. I am straying from my purpose, which was to give some description of the man.

11. Words have weight, sound and appearance, it is only by considering these that you can write a sentence that is good to look at and good to listen to.

12. They were all doing their best to please the old lady, but she was not easy to please.

13. All he did was to print in pencil the letter M and then, after a space, the letters, U, S, E.

14. His first sign of returning strength, on the second day of my visit, was to ask for brandy.

EXERCISE 7.Translate into English using the infinitive as the predicative or part of the predicative.

1. Проблема заключалась в том, как ей все объяснить.

2. Меньше всего она хотела, чтобы дело было предано хоть какой-нибудь огласке.

3. Книгу было очень непросто напечатать. Два раза ее не пропускала цензура.

4. В этом районе небезопасно жить.

5. Музыку было очень приятно слушать.

6. С ней очень трудно разговаривать, когда она в таком настроении.

7. Мой дом удобно расположен, его всегда легко найти.

8. С этого удобно начинать.

9. Такой концерт неинтересно слушать в записи. Лучше сходить в концертный зал.

 

10. Словари часто полезно читать на досуге.

11. На нее смешно было смотреть.


Practice section

12. Единственное, чего она боялась, - это чтобы ребенок не заблудился.

13. Ее первым желанием было проверить все самой.

14. Она считала, что ее основная обязанность как хозяйки -это развлекать гостей.

15. Его предложение заключалось в том, чтобы все попытались найти приемлемый компромисс.

16. Задача продавца — обслужить покупателя быстро и вежливо.

17. Самое лучшее, что мы можем для него сделать, — это сделать вид, что ничего не происходит.

EXERCISE 8. Point out the infinitive as object. Translate into Russian.

1. She noticed with slight surprise that this failed to get its usual reaction.

2. I didn't know whether to draw in a sharp, shocked breath or giggle frankly.

3. They had heard the beginning of the row and were anxious to follow its progress.

4. "I didn't hesitate to beat you when I was unfortunate enough to be married to you."

5. The architect thought it merely cowardly to attempt a blend of ancient and modern.

6. "If you can make it convenient to pay a visit here in the next month I shall be obliged."

7. I am delighted to make your acquaintance.

8. If you think I am happy to sit in a hotel room waiting for a telephone call you are wrong.

9. The whole luncheon was designed to be photographed.

 

10. I didn't like to call Doctor Rush, though.

11. It was his mother's disapproval that prompted him to propose marriage.

12. They were determined to imbue their son with their own ideas.

13. My legs fail to respond to the orders of the mind.


 




Минченков А. Г.

14. She couldn't bring herself to ask whether what the letters said was true.

15. He did not bother to hide his scepticism.

16. The majority were prepared to believe that the plot dictated that Tosca's attempt on his life should fail.

17. He became quite an expert as soon as he learned not to put his hand over the lens.

18. I reckon those lawyers who manage their affairs find it con­venient to give them all the cash they want.

19. There was trouble about the marriage settlement with which Julia refused to interest herself.

20. J don't pretend to be a very devout man, nor much of a theologian, but I know it is a bad plan to have two religions in one house.

21. I didn't know how else to express my feelings.

22. I and several friends in circumstances like my own came seriously to believe that our country was in danger.

23. One group, from Cambridge, had that afternoon signed on to run messages for Transport House.

24. "For God's sake", I said, "you don't mean to spend your life with Kurt, do you?"

25. I saw the branch manager of the bank and arranged for him to receive Sebastian's quarterly allowance and pay him a weekly sum of pocket money.

26. I had meant to return direct to Paris, but business required that I should go to London first.

27. At the end of each passage I paused, tense, afraid to start the next, fearing, like a gambler, that luck must turn and the pile be lost.

28. He was a good loser; and when he won was more inclined to ascribe his success to his luck than to his skill.

29. His partner, not unwilling to get a little of his own back, pointed his error out.

30. I don't know why you thought it necessary to tell Nicky some­thing I told you in confidence.


Practice section

31. He was rather surprised when he saw the bill, but with all that money he had in his pocket he could afford not to care.

32. He didn't in the least want to see the photograph of her little boy, but he thought it only civil to pretend he did.

33. In the silence she could hardly fail to hear his regular breathing.

34. Very slowly she crept across the room taking care not to make the smallest noise.

35. He made up his mind to wait quietly until he was sure that deceitful woman was asleep.

36. It took him a good quarter of an hour, because he could afford to make no sound.

37. He felt a little guilty to be enjoying himself so much.

38. A few biographical details remained to be cleared up, though even they could have been done by letter.

39. He became one of the passable substitutes those who could not afford Riley herself tended to buy.

40. Breasley sat, and waved to David to sit beside him.

41. He grew curious to know what the truth was.

42. There was a little silence, as if one waited for Breasley to declare conversation open.

43. He felt teased, faintly conspired against: now it's our turn to shock you.

44. David asked to be shown the Braque.

45. The local dentist was unfashionably eager to extract teeth rather than fill them.

46. It was all extremely symbolic, but then, if you choose to think so, nothing in this world is not symbolical.

47. The financial slump of the period, which left many painters without employment, served to enhance my success.

48. I have made it my aim to reconcile the so-called Anarchists and the so-called Communists.

49. They did nothing except sit rather glumly in their armchairs and drink occasionally.


 




Минченков А. Г.

50. I have arranged with that sweet Foreign Office man at our table to get us off early with him.

51. It couldn't do anything but arouse Jack's suspicion.

52. The girl was apparently prepared to wait for eternity for the old man's rambling to finish.

53. That will teach you to stroke strange dogs.

54. You ought to know better than to ask questions like that.

55. At last the government nerved itself to introduce the bill in Parliament.

56. They promised her huge profits, but she refused to be deceived.

EXERCISE 9. Translate into Russian using the infinitive as object.

1. Им не по карману снимать эту квартиру.

2. Если ты можешь позволить себе обратиться к хорошему специалисту, не задумываясь сделай это.

3. Они могли позволить себе ждать.

4. В подобной ситуации нельзя позволить себе быть легкомысленным.

5. Они организуют доставку мебели на дом.

6. Мы договорились с Майклом, что он встретит ее на вокзале.

7. Я договорился, что ты остановишься у моего брата.

8. Ты можешь договориться, чтобы мне переслали эти письма?

9. Он утверждает, что видел ее.

 

10. Он утверждал, что он шотландец, но у него был сильный акцент.

11. Они утверждали, что сбили 20 самолетов.

12. Мы считаем, что заслуживаем более вежливого обращения.

13. Она много тренировалась и заслуживает победы.

14. Он вполне заслуживает критики.


Practice section

15. Они рассчитывали продать весь товар к сентябрю.

16. Я рассчитываю быть дома около пяти.

17. Я полагаю, что получу от них известие не позже поне­дельника.

18. Им не удалось приехать раньше.*

19. Он не напомнил мне об этом.

20. Я не могу понять его мысль.

21. Это всегда раздражало ее.

22. Их оштрафовали на 5 фунтов за то, что они не заполнили декларацию.

23. Спрашивайте не стесняйтесь.

24. Какое-то мгновение я сомневался, можно ли давать ее телефон.

25. Ничуть не смущаясь, она дала нам понять, что наше присутствие нежелательно.

26. Если у вас наблюдаются подобные симптомы, не раздумывая идите к врачу.

27. Вам удалось купить подарок?

28. Я не могу понять, как он умудрился найти нас.

29. Я хотел позвонить тебе, но, к сожалению, забыл.**

30. Он не мог вспомнить ни слова из того, что хотел сказать.

31. Извините, я не хотел обидеть вас.

32. Прежде чем я отвечу на этот вопрос, мне нужно проконсультироваться у специалиста.

33. Мне не надо было повторять дважды.

34. Он предложил показать нам Эрмитаж.

35. Ни одна из сторон не высказала готовности пойти на уступки.

36. Она притворилась, что спит.

37. Она сидела и делала вид, что читает книгу.

38. Он сделал вид, что ему это нравится.

39. Премьер-министр пригрозил, что подаст в отставку.

* In sentences 18-22 use the verb fail.

** In sentences 29-31 use the verb mean. 65


Минченков А. Г.

40. Ситуация грозила выйти из-под контроля.

41. Она не советовала мне покупать эту машину.

42. Куда бы вы посоветовали обратиться за помощью?

43. Она посоветовала, где можно поесть.

44. У кошек прекрасное зрение, что позволяет им видеть ночью.

45. Отец не позволял ей есть шоколадные конфеты.

46. Это устройство позволяет облегчить домашний труд.

47. Приведенные факты позволяют считать, что подобных животных не существует.

48. Они пытались убедить Мэри переменить решение.

49. Она убедила меня купить эту книгу.

50. Врач порекомендовал ему больше двигаться.*

51. Не приучай собаку клянчить у стола.

52. Ее успех побудил меня попытаться самому.

53. Таким поведением ты только поощряешь его грубость.

54. Они говорили, что мне стоит купить новый телевизор.

55. Предполагается, что вы не будете задавать лишних вопросов.

56. Предполагается, что вы знаете все новейшие достижения в этой области.

57. Напомни мне поговорить об этом с Дэвисом.

58. Напомни мне, что нужно купить бензина.

59. Она отметила про себя, что ей нужно поблагодарить Мэри за подарок.

60. Я предупреждал тебя не ходить туда.

61. Предупреди их, чтобы были начеку.

62. Наполеон ставил себе целью завоевание России.

63. Она просила дать ей последний шанс.

64. Я не хочу разговаривать с ним об этом.

65. Он требовал, чтобы его ознакомили со всеми фактами.

* In sentences 50-54 use the verb encourage. 66


Practice section

66. Суфражистки боролись за право принимать участие в выборах.

67. Постепенно ты поймешь, что имел в виду автор.

68. Она дожила до ста лет.

69. Она вовремя не обработала рану йодом, и палец воспалился.

70. Многие философы стремились найти смысл жизни.

71. Осмелюсь сказать, что подобный план противоречит здравому смыслу.

72. Он сам вызвался поговорить об этом с начальником.

73. Природа гор вдохновила композитора на написание новой симфонии.

74. Мы платим вам за то, чтобы вы качественно выполняли свою работу.

75. Она пригласила меня принять участие в обсуждении.

76. Она сказала, что у меня это никогда не получится.

77. Он предложил наперегонки переплыть пруд.

78. Дети боялись сказать правду.

79. Он был доволен, что получил продвижение по службе.

80. Ей повезло, что ее не заметили.

81. Мэри очень сожалела, что голосовала за N.

82. Она была очень довольна, что на нее обращают так много внимания.

83. Помощь мисс Смит сделала возможной поимку опасного преступника.

84. Мне трудно поверить, что он лжец.

85. Она считала невозможным верить слухам.

86. Я не считаю разумным так баловать детей.

87. Она поставила себе за правило делать зарядку по утрам.

88. Сейчас он встает позже, чем раньше.

89. Она меньше двигается, чем раньше.

90. Здесь раньше был дом.


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91. Нам, бывало, нравилось ходить на прогулку в этот парк.

92. Ты можешь посоветовать, какой костюм выбрать?

93. Я не могу решить, говорить правду или нет.

94. После больших колебаний я наконец решился поднять этот вопрос опять.

95. Будешь знать как есть мороженое в холодную погоду.

96. Спорим, ты не сможешь это сделать!

EXERCISE10. Translate into Russian paying attention to the infinitive used after the causative verbs make, have and get.

1. He made me search the house for old manuals about Billy Bunter.

2. I have to get my memory to work, and it is like an old clock, rusty.

3. Eldred made the words sound like a command.

4. "If you could try and get her to talk. Mayby this evening. We'll get Henry off to bed early. She needs someone from outside."

5. "You must be feeling tired and dusty after your journey down. I'll guide you to your room. Marjorie, will you get someone to take up his luggage?"

6. Rex hoped to have the whole of Julia's dowry in his hands, to make it work for him.

7. "What on earth made you tell your mother that?" I asked, when, years later, Julia described the scene to me.

8. The Marchioness has been a positive pest ever since I came to London, trying to make me get into touch with them.

9. "Kurt will get me to sign a cheque for the whole lot when I am tight and then he will go off and get into all kinds of trouble."

 

10. I worked on, oblivious of her, until the failing sun made me put up my brushes.

11. I've turned the old barn into a studio for you, so that you needn't be disturbed by the children or when we have people to stay. I got Emden to do it. Everyone thinks it a great success.

12. "It was really John who made him see reason about that girl; seriously, you know, he is frightfully sharp."


 

13. The great bronze doors of the lounge had torn away from their hooks and were swinging free with the roll of the ship. There was something forbidding in the sight of that great weight of uncontrolled metal, flapping to and fro, which might have made a timid man flinch or skip through quickly.

14. "The roses were a shock. They made me think we were starting the day on the wrong foot."

15. I'll have someone come round to look after the child while we are out.

EXERCISE 11.Point out the Objective Infinitive Construction and analyse its parts. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. He knew himself to be more intelligent than his chief.

2. Did he expect the story to be believed, might it even be true? With Derek anything was possible.

3. I've heard people who have been on the tour say it isn't very well organised.

4. I saw Robin's long form sidle round the door.

5. I rely on the well-know Durling tact to steer us to a compromise.

6. I don't complain. I take it to be my destiny.

7. I don't want that boy to go to prison for putting out forgeries.

8. He made no resistance, but allowed himself to be shaken back and forwards.

9. In this thrilling moment of total blackness I suddenly felt her kiss me on the cheek.

 

10. He took his glass and watched her pour some wine for herself.

11. Now he heard someone come out of Breasley's bedroom, then light footsteps, the creak of a floorboard outside his room.

12. He had read the subject up cursorily before coming, but now he played a little ignorant, and discovered Breasley to be rather more learned and lettered than his briskly laconic manner at first sound suggested.

13. They had chatted a little about the lake, the temperature,



Минченков А. Г.


Practice section


 


the niceness of it, as they trod water some ten feet apart. He saw Freak go back on shore.

14. The old man hesitated, then reached and took a sheet of paper from a drawer beside him. Standing at his shoulder, David watched him address himself to the paper as if to some formal document.

15. Presently on the last afternoon I heard a voice behind me say: "May I stay here and watch?"

16. I've seen a few divorces in my time, and I've never known one work out so happily for all concerned. Almost always, however friendly people are at the start, bad blood crops up when they get down to detail.

17. I wanted him to come home with me, but he wouldn't. He's got a beard now, you know, and he's very religious.

18. I have known cases where it has had a wonderfully soothing effect on a patient; I've even known it act as a positive stimulant.

19. I can't bear you to be alone your first night home.

EXERCISE 12. Point out the Subjective Infinitive

Construction. Analyse its parts and their functions. Translate into Russian.

1. His great bulk seemed to dwarf the chair he sat on.

2. He was meant to be dead.

3. He appeared not to hear the sharply hysterical cries of the Director of the Flinwich Festival.

4. The plays offered at the local theatre are not likely to disturb the intellect or the emotions.

5. The Italian police seem to have given up hope of solving the problems surrounding them.

6. It appears to have been accepted that the death was accidental.

7. He was known to have a job in the Civil Service and was understood to be interested in literature.

8. N. is agreed by those who live in it to be a delightful small town.


9. The actual killer, however, turned out to be her secretary, played by Sandy.

10. Nobody seems to care for the idea of calling in the police.

11. The town mayor happened that year to be a Labour man and a train driver.

12. She says we live in different atmospheres. That's all right, but Julia happens to fancy my atmosphere.

13. Rex's age was greatly in his favour, for among Julia's friends there was a kind of gerontophilic snobbery; young men were held to be gauche and pimply.

14. He's found a companion he happens to like and a place where he happens to like living.

15. "I never see you now", she said. "I never seem to see any­one I like. I don't know why."

16. Time is found to have built its own defensive lines, camouflaged vulnerable points, and laid a field of mines across all but a few well-trodden paths, so that, more often than not, we can only signal to one another from either side of the tangle of wires.

17. I happen to have a personal interest in the artist if that word has any meaning for you.

18. "Oh, my darling, why is it that love makes me hate the world? It is supposed to have quite the opposite effect."

19. "Would you very much mind not doing that? I don't happen to enjoy it."

20. All that he was known with certainty to have done was to form a collection of match-boxes. Other than this he was not known to have any interests.

21. "How do I know I shan't suddenly turn out to be somebody else? It's an easy way to chuck."

22. As I don't happen to drink, I am more employable.

23. At last a date in January was chosen which proved to be the correct one.

24. It was of course a mere jotting, never meant to be printed; but which Johnson's literary executors pitched into the book with all the rest of the available posthumous materials.


 




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25. Her father was one of those Victorian gentlemen who appear to have lived comfortably on doing nothing.

26. David was glad he had chanced to arrive when the dog was off the premises.

27. Then Henry suddenly asked if we'd like to stay to lunch. But we felt it was just a nice gesture — one was meant to refuse.

28. A father is generally supposed to like his daughters best.

29. The boy turned out to have visited the palace before.

EXERCISE 13.Translate into English using either the Subjective or the Objective Infinitive Constructions.

1. Она, похоже, уже потеряла всякое терпение.

2. Кажется, ей здесь нравится.

3. Кажется, он совершенно ничего не делает, чтобы подготовиться к экзамену.

4. Похоже, результаты были фальсифицированы.

5. Кажется, ты забыл, что у нас на завтра билеты в театр.

6. Похоже, министр пользовался устаревшими сведениями.

7. Оказалось, что она ошибалась.

8. Картина, которая, как считали, принадлежала кисти Рубенса, оказалась подделкой.

9. Оказалось, что перевод был неточным.

 

10. Статья оказалась довольно интересной.

11. Обидно сознавать, что все предпринятые нами усилия оказались бесполезными.

12. Навряд ли это произойдет в ближайшем будущем.

13. Маловероятно, что поезд придет по расписанию.

14. Весьма вероятно, что запись этого концерта будут транслировать на следующей неделе.

15. По всей вероятности, вылет самолета будет задержан из-за плохой погоды.

16. Вероятно, ей уже обо всем рассказали.


 

17. Маловероятно, что он что-нибудь заподозрит.

18. В эту минуту она случайно оказалась неподалеку и слышала их разговор.

19. Я случайно встретился с ней по дороге в институт.

20. Если вы случайно увидите эту книгу, купите ее для меня, пожалуйста.

21. Послушайте, это место, между прочим, занято.*

22. Мне, между прочим, нравится эта певица, так что, пожа­луйста, не нужно так говорить о ней в моем присутствии.

23. Утверждают, что он передал секретную информацию конкурирующей фирме.

24. Считается, что эта трава помогает от 100 болезней.

25. Считается, что проблемы, связанные с монархией, отвлекают людей от действительно насущных проблем.

26. Астрологию не считают настоящей наукой.

27. Ожидается, что президент сделает важное заявление сегодня вечером.

28. Ожидается, что цены снова вырастут.

29. Никто не ожидал, что голодовка принесет плоды.

30. Предполагается, что переговоры продлятся 3 дня.

31. Вы обязаны приходить на работу в 8 часов.

32. Предполагается, что вы не будете задавать лишних вопросов.

33. Начальник считал, что она должна ставить работу превыше личной жизни.

34. Обнаружилось, что он скрывается в Южной Америке.

35. По оценкам экспертов, данный политический курс должен привести к экономическому подъему.

36. Известно, что во время Второй мировой войны он был в Испании.

37. Согласно прогнозам, консерваторы должны были получить большинство в парламенте.


* In sentences 21-22 use the verb happen.




Минченков А. Г.

38. Сообщается, что этот режиссер снимает сейчас новую картину.

39. Я не могу до нее дозвониться. Говорят, она уехала за границу.

40. Ходят слухи, что он похищен террористами.

41. Его считали очень сведущим в вопросах истории.

42. Полагали, что они тайно обвенчались еще месяц назад.

43. Было видно, как она кивнула в знак согласия.

44. Слышали, как она сказала, что впервые слышит об этом.

45. Видели, как машина свернула за угол и остановилась у банка.

46. Спроси Джека. Он наверняка знает.

47. Внезапно она услышала, что дверь открылась.

48. Он проследил за тем, как она вышла из комнаты.

49. Я заметил, что к забору подбежала собака, и решил не выходить, пока не выйдет хозяин.

50. Я видел, как кто-то подошел к окну и подал условный сигнал.

51. Она слушала, как за окном завывает ветер.

52. В темноте я почувствовал, как что-то мягкое коснулось моей руки, и невольно вздрогнул.

53. Я рассчитываю на то, что вы сдержите свое слово.

54. Ей не нравилось, когда ее родственники провожали ее.

55. Она хотела, чтобы они ей поверили.

56. Я хочу, чтобы вы показали мне все относящиеся к делу документы.

57. Начальник хочет, чтобы работа была завершена в понедельник.

58. Не было случая, чтобы он меня подвел.


Practice section

EXERCISE 14. Point out infinitive structures in the function of attribute. Translate into Russian paying special attention to a possible modal meaning expressed by the infinitive in this function.

1. He hasn't produced sufficient evidence to justify a perhaps lengthy and expensive investigation abroad.

2. Headfield is a prosperous town with pleasant country to be reached in ten minutes' drive.

3. She left shortly after dinner, saying that she had an article to write and a deadline to meet.

4. They thought it would be a good place to bring up the kids.

5. He complained about my failure to return this or that set of figures which were urgently required.

6. One condition was that Signor Morvelli should have an option to buy two hundred shares in the company, at a price to be agreed.

7. And I have the house to look after and your dinner parties to arrange.

8. There are no slums in Headfield of the kind to be seen in London and other big cities.

9. She had been frightened of him once, but now he was a piece of property to be wheeled about, helped in and out of bed, tucked up at night.

 

10. The Sun, hostile to European integration since at least 1981, has the gall to demand rational discussion on the subject.

11. Norman had the audacity to say I could have bought them if I had gone in the morning.

12. He felt that Colin would lack the nerve to do anything original.

13. In spite of Robin's desire to promote European dramatists, the next play to be produced by the Headfield players was Murder Most Informal.

14. Brenda pointed out the undesirable publicity likely to follow any police enquiry.

15. When we stood waiting for the motor boats to take us to our hotel, it was raining.



Минченков А. Г.

16. There was only ten days of term to go; I got through them somehow and returned to London.

17. They are not animals in a zoo to be goggled at. They are artists, very great artists, to be revered.

18. Still there may be time for him to see her.

19. Goodness knows there is nowhere to go in the old town.

20. There is nothing for a student to do here now.

21. Once he stayed out all night and there was no one to make my coffee when I woke up.

22. My work had nothing to recommend it except my growing technical skill, enthusiasm for my subject, and independence of popular notions.

23. The time has now come to rebuild on broader foundations.

24. It was no time for the sweet of luxury. Now on the rough water there was a formality to be observed, no more.

25. Really I think it is a thing for Lord Brideshead to decide.

26. He had no strength for any other war than his own solitary struggle to keep alive.

27. The man, who, in his time, had had ample chance to tire of undergraduate fantasy, was plainly captivated.

28. I felt at heart that this was not all which Oxford had to offer.

29. She made a vague gesture for him to follow her, and turned to the stairs.

30. Henry had still another decade to wait before any sort of serious recognition at home.

31. He very rarely indeed found nothing at all to praise in an artist or an exhibition.

32. It must have been something to do with the sun, the water and their low voices.

33. It gave us an opportunity to meet many different people.

34. She felt that the question she had to ask had nothing to do with the subject of the discussion.


Practice section

EXERCISE 15.Translate into English using the infinitive as attribute.

1. Это не та вещь, которую можно дарить на день рождения.

2. Он не из тех, кого нужно бояться.

3. Она не тот человек, над которым можно смеяться.

4. Нам далеко идти.

5. Ей не к кому обратиться.

6. Винить некого.

7. Она первой произнесла это слово.

8. Ее приняли последней.

9. У него хватило наглости прийти сюда.

 

10. Было много людей, нуждающихся в операции.

11. У нас нет никого, кто мог бы присматривать за ребенком.

12. Вот лекарство, которое нужно принять немедленно.

13. Ему надо было написать несколько писем.

14. У меня не было возможности съездить туда.

15. Нам предстояло решить сразу несколько проблем.

16. У меня есть несколько книг по искусству, которые ты можешь просмотреть.

17. Боюсь, нам придется со многим смириться.

18. У девочки не было брата, с которым она могла бы играть.

19. Мне нечего вам предложить.

20. Мальчик первым услышал звонок.

21. Вот образец, который тебе нужно переписать.

22. Она получила письмо, в котором говорилось, что ее приняли на работу.

23. Вагон был так переполнен, что я не мог найти свободного • места.

24. Эту книгу трудно читать в поезде. Ее стоит читать дома со словарем.

25. Этот фильм интересно смотреть.



Минченков А. Г.


Practice section


 


26. Он не такой человек, которому можно доверять.

27. Я едва мог противостоять соблазну купить такую хорошую вещь за такую низкую цену.

28. Вы упустили возможность загладить свою вину.

29. Она сделала огромное усилие, чтобы не потерять самооб­ладание.

30. Это удобный способ дать ей понять, что она ошибается.

31. У меня нет никакого желания рассказывать вам что-либо.

32. У вас нет никакого права вмешиваться.

33. Писатель получил разрешение пользоваться архивами.

34. Она посмотрела на меня таким взглядом, который говорил, что мне лучше молчать.

EXERCISE 16.Point out the infinitive as adverbial modifier and identify its type. Translate into Russian.

1. She crossed to the desk so as to look for the safe-conduct.

2. The first possibility is that the letter was written to damage the firm.

3. You didn't search me out to talk about Colin. So what is up?

4. He had been given that straight eye-to-eye look by Derek too often not to know that it was a warning.

5. I was no fool; I was old enough to know that an attempt had been made to suborn me and young enough to have found the experience agreeable.

6. He drew the curtains and the sound of it woke me, to find him there fully dressed.

7. I felt too ill for the speculation to take root in my mind at the time.

8. As if to justify him a sable cloud blotted out the sun, large drops of rain fell on bare heads and shoulders.

9. I said I was willing to pay infinitely more to have a compartment to myself.

10. Sandy drifted away to talk to the Porsons, who had recently arrived.


 

11. Jason dressed with care in a shirt with a gray stripe in it so faint as to be almost invisible.

12. Her teeth were too white to be real.

13. She had only to stroke the magic ring with her fingertips and whisper the charmed word, for the earth to open at her feet and belch forth her titanic servant who would bring her whatever she asked.

14. He sat on a number of charitable committees in order to be near her.

15. We drove at great speed and arrived to find a steel hawser stretched between lamp posts, an overturned truck and a police-man.

16. He answered softly in English fluent enough to suggest that it was now habitual to him.

17. I am here to cure people, not to protect them from vicious habits, or teach them self-control.

18. The voices seemed so distant as to be meaningless.

19. She had married me six years ago at the time of my first exhibition, and had done much since then to push our interests.

20. There was an article on it in Country Life; I bought it for you to see.

21. You'd think, to hear them talk to each other, they were the same age.

22. Most passengers had fads; he was paid to fortify their self-esteem.

23. Then he looked round furtively to see if he had been observed, caught my eye, and giggled nervously.

24. I telephoned for a barber to come and shave me.

25. She had not come to see the pictures but to get a "human story" of the dangers of my journey.

26. The soft breeze gently stirred the blossom in the limes and carried its fragrance, fresh from the late rains, to merge with the sweet breath of box and the drying stone.

27. He spoke as though it were a mere trick of fate that he was none of these things, and he might awake any morning to find the matter adjusted.



Минчвнков А. Г.


Practice section


 


28. I, of course, was host, though to hear Beryl press my son with food, you might have thought otherwise.

29. There was a pause in which Julia sighed and John drew breath as though to start further subdividing the propositions.

30. It was a charming room, oddly shaped to conform with the curve of the dome.

31. I haven't sent him to Cambridge just to play tennis.

32. Nicky was not such a fool as to be unaware that women often liked him.

33. But as if to confirm that the thing was not to be taken lightly, he saw that the gate was padlocked on the inner side.

34. The old man began to confess he was a fool to have spent so much of his life in a city.

35. She reached a hand skyward as if to push the memory away.

36. Some time later he had stood to go, but the old man stopped him before he could move away.

37. The girl tilted an angle lamp to light the place she had chosen.

38. It had causes too small, too manifold to have been detected in the past or to be analyzed now.

39. He broke off and coughed, so as to hide the fact that he had uttered.

40. Her smile faded quickly: "You were crazy to come."

EXERCISE 17.Translate into English paying attention to the use of the infinitive as adverbial modifier. More than one variant may be possible.

1. Вода сегодня слишком холодная, чтобы мы могли купаться.

2. Она была так слаба, что не могла встать с постели без посторонней помощи.

3. Она была так напугана, что не могла сдвинуться с места.

4. Зал недостаточно велик, чтобы вместить такое количество зрителей.

5. Она была слишком доверчивым человеком, чтобы понять, что ее обманывают.


 

6. Лектор говорил так быстро, что студенты не могли поспевать за ним.

7. Текст настолько сложный, что я не могу перевести его.

8. Она слишком известная певица, чтобы согласиться петь за такую цену.

9. Она такая ханжа, что вряд ли одобрит это.

 

10. Звук был слишком слабым, чтобы кто-нибудь обратил внимание.

11. Ветер был слишком сильным, чтобы судно могло выйти в море.

12. Она была достаточно тактична, чтобы не подать виду.

13. Если сложить этот надувной матрас, он будет достаточно мал, чтобы войти в сумку.

14. Эта кастрюля недостаточно большая, чтобы варить в ней суп.

15. Давай купим крупы по дороге домой, чтобы потом не ходить в магазин специально.

16. Они выехали раньше, чтобы не попасть в пробку.

17. Надо включить телевизор сейчас, чтобы не пропустить начало фильма.

18. Когда Майкл пришел домой, он узнал, что его дочь отвезли в больницу.

19. Она обернулась - и увидела, как за нею идет какой-то человек.

20. Я нашел указанную гостиницу, но мне там сказали, что номер для меня не забронирован.

21. Джек сказал, что хранит пистолет в ящике письменного стола. Они открыли ящик, но пистолета там не было.

22. Она думала, что он придет, чтобы все рассказать.

23. Она лезла из кожи вон, чтобы стать его женой.

24. Она провела рукой по волосам, словно хотела поправить прическу.

25. Я пришел сюда не для того, чтобы развлекать вас.

26. Чтобы ничего не объяснять, она повесила трубку.


 




Минченков А. Г.

27. Он повернулся к окну, словно хотел сказать, что разговор закончен.

EXERCISE 18.Revision. Use the infinitive in brackets in the appropriate form. State the function of the infinitive. Translate into Russian.

1. He couldn't (bear) (look) at her more than was necessary.

2. How often he had heard her (tell) the story.

3. She made you (feel) ashamed for the whole human race.

4. (Make) these silent and spectral appearances was one of Janet's peculiar talents.

5. Her eyes were large and dark with the largeness and darkness that seemed (invite) sties and an occasional bloodshot suf­fusion.

6. She hopes (be) well enough (see) you at luncheon tomorrow.

7. Reality does not always (come) up to the ideal. But that doesn't make me (believe) any the less in the ideal.

8. It was the first time he had done such a thing; the action seemed not (resent).

9. Once out of sight of the house he let his high pace (decline) to a trot, and finally to a walk.

 

10. I could (lock) myself up and force myself not (come) to you.

11. She had half a mile in which (invent) the necessary lies.

12. "I'd rather (leave) in peace (die) here", she was crying in earnest now.

13. (Make) amends for his show of exasperation he went up to his wife's room and offered (read) to her.

14. She leaned forward, aimed, so (speak), like a gun, and fired her words.

15. He wasn't romantic enough (imagine) that every face masked an interior physiognomy of beauty and strangeness.

16. I'll drink it after my medicine (take) the taste away.

17. He was happy (be) alone.

18. It was tiresome (catch) out in a lie.


Practice section

19. He slept for seven and a half hours, and woke (find) the sun high in the sky.

20. I didn't mean (write) to you; I meant (wait) until you were out of mourning and could (come) and (see) me again.

21. I can't (understand) how you ever came (pay) any attention to me, I am so dull and stupid.

22. It was imbecile, idiotic: there was no other way (describe) it.

23. There is no interest or pleasure (derive) from these wretched affairs.

24. Mr. Hutton found it very difficult (distinguish) what she was saying.

25. A wicked man had been moved by an illicit passion (kill) his wife. For months he had lived in sin and fancied security — only (dash) at last more horribly into the pit he had prepared for himself. Murder will out, and here was a case of it. The readers of the newspapers were in a position follow) every movement of the hand of God.

26. It was all too fantastic (take) seriously.

27. He had seen it (fall), he had heard it (strike) the pavement.

28. She seemed (drink) about half the bottle.

29. "I'll commission him (paint) frescoes round this room. It is just what I've always vainly longed for - a real nineteenth-century artist (decorate) this place for me."

30. He took it into his head, somewhere about the sixties, (go) to Palestine (get) local colour for his religious pictures.

31. "Get someone (put) all these things back in their places", Lord Badgery commanded.

32. One of the first things I shall do when my fortunes are restored will be (buy) a hedgehog.

33. The two girls seemed (to disappear). In the corridor above he stopped (look) at the two paintings he had noticed when she first showed him up and failed (put) a name to.

34. A chance meeting led to an invitation (do) some reviewing; and a year later still that had become lucrative enough for him (drop) the lecturing.


 




Минченков А. Г.


Practice section


 


35. Then suddenly, as if (solve) the enigma, the living painter himself appeared from the garden door.

36. Between bites at his pear David asked why it had taken so long (find) that out.

37. All his life he must have had this craving for a place (hide); a profound shyness, a timidity; and forced himself (behave) in an exactly contrary fashion.

38. Presently, (ease) the tension, one of the others mentioned a subject upon which Henry was glad (speak).

39. He saw in fancy his son (leap) over the net (shake) hands with the American champion whom he had just defeated.

40. It was not unusual for dinner parties (end) in that way.

41. The last architect (work) at Brideshead had added a colonnade and flanking pavilions.

42. I expected you (make) mistakes your first year.

43. I know it must be embarrassing for you, but I happen (like) this bad set.

44. Then they began (blaspheme) in a very shocking manner, and suddenly I, too, began (annoy).

45. He thought it would make me (grow) out of what he calls my "English habits".

46. I never heard anyone (speak) an ill word of Stefanie.

47. Antoine claims (have) an affair with her.

48. Take yesterday. He seemed (do) very well. He learned large bits of the catechism by heart, and the Lord's Prayer, and the Hail Mary.

49. Do you expect a grown man (believe) about walking to heaven?

50. I mean I was much too deep with Rex (be able) (say) "The marriage arranged will not now take place", and leave it at that. 1 wanted (make) an honest woman. I've been wanting it ever since - come (think) of it.

51. Father Mowbray hit on the truth about Rex at once, that it took me a year of marriage (see).

52. She telephoned (say) her mother was anxious (see) me.


 

53. We went across the hall to the small drawing-room where luncheon parties used (assemble), and sat on either side of the fireplace.

54. It seems a shame (pull) it down, but Julia says she'd sooner that than (have) someone else (live) there.

55. Whenever he comes the first thing he does is (drive) straight to the Old Rectory.

56. The secretary had failed (remind) them of our departure in time.

57. I felt it was all right for me (dislike) her.

58. I saw her to bed, the blue lids fell over her eyes; her pale lips moved on the pillow, but whether (wish) me good night or (murmur) a prayer - I did not know.

59. I've never known a divorce (do) any good.

EXERCISE 19.The Infinitive in newspapers. Analyse the function of the infinitive used in newspaper articles. Translate into Russian. Point out the peculiarites of the use of the infinitive in newspaper language.

He survived to tell his story, but finds that in a country paranoid about violent crime very few want to listen.

He had to watch his five children grow up without him.

The trip to the Derby and many other events are captured by this two-hour documentary, to be broadcast close to the anniversary date of Februrary, 6.

Mr. Major's political judgement turns out to be faulty.

The Tories are certain to win every future election, since economic conditions could hardly be less favourable than in 1992.

Economics is likely to be less important than the influence of non-economic factors.

During the past three election campaigns, most of the media, which tend to back the Tories, have joined in. Economic optimism was bound to increase as a result.

The Sunday Times has discovered that one of the most influential textbooks fails to recommend a commonly used technique to save lives.


 




Минченков А. Г.


Practice section


 


9. Не is known to be concerned that a hard core of persistent juvenile offenders have been able to escape prosecution be­cause of their age.

Mr. Howard has pressed ahead with secure detention centres for persistent young offenders and is anxions for the courts to have adequate powers to deal with them.

It is unlikely that decisions could be reached in time for changes to the law to be included.

It is almost an affront to common sense to presume that a boy of 12 or 13 who steals a motor car is unaware he is doing wrong.

The princess spoke of the "grief and guilt" felt by mothers who will not see their children grow up, and the problems of finding someone to confide in.

Her teachers know about her illness and are understanding, but she is reluctant to let other parents know.

They said that Silcock would not have injured the officer if he had been made to accept treatment earlier.

He has resisted attempts to merge the internal security orga­nisation with the armed forces.

In the past Prince Sultan has made no secret of his ambition to be king.

Prince Sultan is said to be preferred by the United States.

By contrast, Prince Abdullah is thought to have been unhappy about the large and unprecedented US presence in the kingdom during the campaign to liberate Kuwait.

He favours good ties with Britain and France to balance over-dependence on Washington.

He is likely to maintain a cautious policy on the two key issues.

Yesterday's announcement appears to confirm Prince Abdullah's position.

In 1865-1867 Walter Bagehot, the finest and most influential writer ever to have been editor of the Economist, defined the constitutional role of the modern British monarchy.

To put monarchy to a vote is by definition to destroy its very essence.

86

25. In this age both of television and democracy the royal family has sought to make itself more accessible.

26. If Prince Charles is deemed widely to be an unsuitable king, then to allow him to succeed without a referendum would itself harm the institution of the monarchy.

27. The government gave campaigners one last chance yesterday to save the world's most expensive sculpture, Canova's The Three Graces.

28. Victoria and Albert museum has spearheaded attempts to raise 7.6 million pounds to match the Getty Museum's Offer.

29. There are real hopes that this deferral might just be enough for the fund-raising campaign to be successful.

30. It took Monet, Duchamp and Pollock to realise the true meaning of art.

31. Certainly, the British public takes time to appreciate its home-grown talent.

32. Education department figures, to be released next month, will reveal a fourfold increase in the number of children excluded from school.

33. All this while I was also supposed to be working towards my A-levels.

34. It seems strange that the dons, in their faddish determination to prove themselves even more democratic, profess to be doing this to favour the likes of me.

35. One possible advance would be for groups of universities offering the same subject to band together to set common papers.







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