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Participle I as an attribute can modify nouns and some pronouns:
• Those workinghave no time for that.
It can be used both in pre-position (when it precedes the noun) or in post-position (when it follows it). In pre-position Participle I is usually used singly:
• She could not stand the blindinglights.
The use of single Participle I in pre-position may present a problem, for not every participle can function in this way. In fact, only those participles that indicate a permanent or characteristic feature can be used in pre-position. For example, we can say reassuring smile (look), but it is hardly possible to say *reassuring girl.
The thing is that a person can not be permanently reassuring, but when we say something like a reassuring face we characterize the face, classify it. Likewise, we say a wandering minstrel (— 'one who does it habitually'), but not *wandering person. Compare also shocking woman and shocking words. The first one is appropriate only if the woman always shocks other people, but inappropriate if she is saying something shocking to somebody at the moment. It should be noted also that Participle I in pre-position is commonly used with the indefinite article:
• A barking dog woke him up (classifying meaning of the article).
With the definite article Participle I is used when the article has a generic meaning (which is again connected with the idea of permanence):
• The beginningstudent may find it difficult to understand.
Summing up, we can say that participle I in pre-position is incompatible with anything temporary, taking place or being true only at the moment of speech or over a short period of time.
Participle I with accompanying words is widely used in post-position instead of attributive clauses:
• People coming to see hercould not believe their eyes (= People who came...).
• John, fishing next to Mike,caught a big fish (— John, who was fishing...).
However, we can't replace a clause with a participial phrase when:
1) it refers to a repeated action or a habit:
• People who read newspapersalways know what is going on in
2) It contains a verb that describes mental states: know, believe,
• Those who believe itwill believe anything.
3) It refers to an event completed before what is described in the
•The boy who went with usgot lost on the way home.
Note:Special attention should be paid to the fact that Participle I Perfect can't be used in the function of an attribute. Sentences like *The war having begunin 1337 was to last for more than a hundred years are incorrect.
Their occurrence in translations by Russian learners of English is explained by the frequent use of the Russian Perfect Participle in the attributive function in spoken and written discourse. In English, however, this idea can be expressed only by a clause:
• The war that began in 1337...
■ 2) Participle II
Participle II as an attribute can also be used in pre-position and in post-position.
In pre-position Participle II can be used singly and in a phrase. As to single Participle II, the basic principles determining its use are the same as those operating with Participle I single. Yet, Participle II has its own peculiarities. First of all, Participle II of intransitive verbs is rarely used in pre-position: *the arrived guests. The exceptions include participles of a few words: accumulated, dated, escaped, faded, fallen, retired, swollen, vanished, wilted: a fallen tree, a retired colonel, wilted flowers. These participles always have an active meaning. Also, when Participle II of an intransitive verb is modified by an adverb it can be used in pre-position: the newly arrived guests.
Participle II of many transitive verbs can be used in pre-position. However, participles which refer to an action rather than a state are much less commonly used. Cf:. a damaged car, a broken cup, but *the built plant, *the mentioned book. The use of many participles varies according to the context; they are more common in pre-position when they have permanent reference, or when they are modified by an adverb:
• a marriedman (permanent characteristic);
• the newly-bornbaby;
• the above-mentionedwriter;
• the recently-builtplant.
A participial phrase used in pre-position is always detached and has an additional meaning of an adverbial modifier:
• Annoyed by his words, she went out of the room (reason).
Participle II in post-position can be used singly:
• Money lentis money spent(proverb).
or in a phrase:
• They came to a tree broken by the recent storm.
Participial phrase in post-position can also be detached:
• His comedies, loved by many people all over the world,have
Note:There are a number of participles which are normally used in post-position:
— visited • the place visited
— discovered • the drawbacks discovered
This is because these participles refer to something dynamic, not permanent.