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Pre-School Education in the USA




Attendance at school for children under six isnt compulsory, and the provision of schools for children under six varies according to the finances and circumstances of local communities. Most public elementary schools provide a pre-school kindergarten (K) year for five-year-olds, which is usually the first year of elementary school.

There are various types of pre-schools, including non-profit co-operative schools, church-affiliated schools, private schools and Montessori schools. A co-operative school is usually the least expensive, as parents work voluntarily as teachers aides alongside professional teachers. Church-affiliated schools are usually attached to religious centers and may include religious education. Private nursery schools are the most expensive fees range from $5,000 to $15,000 per year for full-time schooling, depending on the school and area. Private schools vary considerably from small home-run set-ups to large custom-built schools. A number of private nursery schools use the Montessori method of teaching, developed by Dr Maria Montessori in the early 1900s. This method is based on the belief that each child is an individual with unique needs, interests and patterns of growth.

Many areas also have what are termed toddler or tot programs, which usually accept children from two to four years of age. Activities generally include arts and crafts, music, educational games, perceptual motor activities and listening skills. Most communities also have informal community schools or learning centers, playgroups, morning programs at local YWCAs, and other inexpensive alternatives to private schools. Community colleges also offer a variety of courses for small children, e.g. painting, dancing and cooking, once or twice a week, e.g. on Saturday mornings.

(abridged from Living and Working in America, http://www.justlanded.com/english/USA/USA-Guide/Education/Pre-school-education).

 

CULTURE CORNER

Getting an Insight into American Culture

Nursery Rhymes

 

One of the most enduring forms of oral literature in British and American culture is the nursery rhyme. Although people often take these funny little ditties for granted, some of them have been about for a very long time and generally date from the around 16th, 17th, and most frequently, the 18th centuries. Apparently most nursery rhymes were originally composed for adult entertainment. Many were popular ballads and songs. The most influential collection of nursery rhymes was Mother Gooses Melody: or Sonnets for the Cradle, published in 1781. Among its 51 rhymes were Jack and Jill and Ding Dong Bell. An edition was reprinted in the USA in 1785 by I. Thomas. These verses are still commonly called Mother Goose rhymes in the USA (http://www.ipl.org/div/pf/entry/4851).

1. Read the following famous nursery rhymes. Do you like them? Why do you think can be beneficial for children?

Humpty Dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall. Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. All the kings horses and all the kings men Couldnt put Humpty together again! (http://americanfolklore.net/folklore/2010/07 There was a crooked man There was a crooked man, and he walked a crooked mile. He found a crooked sixpence against a crooked stile. He had a crooked cat which caught a crooked mouse And they all lived together in a little crooked house.

2. Read the translations of the rhymes into Russian. Did you know that these rhymes which are well-known in Russia were translated from English? What rhymes and stories did your parents read to you when you were a child?

- - .- . , , ,-,-,- ! (. .. ) http://www.ekamama.ru/matter/family/12905.html)   , , . . , . , .( . . )http://www.ekamama.ru/matter/family/12905.html)

 

3. Listen to one more nursery rhyme (a traditional lullaby). Then translate it into Russian.

Mamas Gonna Buy You a Mockingbird
Hush, little baby, dont say a word,
Mamas gonna buy you a mockingbird.
If that mockingbird dont sing,
Mamas gonna buy you a diamond ring.
If that diamond ring turns to brass,
Mamas gonna buy you a looking glass.
If that looking glass gets broke,
Mamas gonna buy you a billy-goat.
If that billy-goat wont pull,
Mamas gonna buy you a cart and bull.
If that cart and bull turn over,
Mamas gonna buy you a dog named Rover.
If that dog named Rover wont bark,
Mamas gonna buy you a horse and cart.
If that horse and cart falls down,
Youll still be the sweetest little baby in town.

(http://www.mamalisa.com/?t=es&p=1443&c=23)

INTENSIVE READING:

Reading an Article

Read the article and list pros and cons of preschools.







: 2015-09-15; : 139.

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