1. John The report criticised Peter/his sloppy work. Peter for sleeping too long. Peters book for its poor plot. his book for being sentimental.  
2. John was critical of Peters views/work.    
3. John expressed/offered a lot of criticism(s).    
4. John levelled criticism(s) at Peter/his work.    
5. Johns book / speech / words came in for / aroused / provoked / stirred up a great deal of criticism.    
6. John spoke critically of Peter/his ideas.    
7. John condemned censured denounced Peter (for his treacherous behaviour). Peter (for robbing the bank). Peter (as a traitor). Peters treacherous behaviour. Peters behaviour as treacherous. Peters behaviour as an attempt to mislead the public.  
8. John slashed Peters new book (for its poor dialogue).  
9. John made a slashing attack on Peter/his new book.  
10. John found fault with Peters work.  
11. John blamed Peter. Peter/bad weather for their defeat. their defeat on Peter.  
12. John laid/placed/put the blame (for their defeat) on Peter.    
13. John shifted the blame (for their defeat) onto/to Peter.      
14. Peter assumed/took the blame for their defeat.    
15. John The article accused Peter (of treachery). (of taking bribes). (of having accepted a bribe).  
16. The police charged Peter with robbery. with neglecting his duty.  
17. John brought / levelled / made an accusation of gross negligence / theft / neglect of duty against Peter.    
18. The police brought / levelled / made a charge of robbery / murder against Peter.    
19. Peter denied/refuted the accusation/charge of theft.      
20. Peter recriminated against Peter.      
21. Peter recriminated by saying that it was John who had neglected his duty.  
22. John and Peter indulged in recriminations (against each other).    
23. John reproached Peter (with/for his mistake). (with/for making a mistake).  
24. John reproved rebuked reprimanded scolded told off dressed down Peter (for his foolish behaviour). (for making glaring mistakes). (for having made a mistake).  
25. John heaped reproaches on Peter.    
26. John gave him a reproof rebuke reprimand admonition scolding telling-off dressing-down   (for his careless mistake). (for making careless mistakes).  
27. John got/received a reproof rebuke reprimand admonition scolding telling-of dressing-down (for his foolish behaviour). (for being late).  
28. John admonished Peter (for his conduct/being late).    
29. John expostulated with Peter about/on his treatment of children.    
30. John lashed (out) against/at his opponents. the governments policy.  
31. John lectured Peter for his slapdash/slipshod/sloppy work.    
32. John gave/read Peter a lecture about/on the importance of good spelling.    




1. praise to say that you admire and approve of someone or something, especially publicly

2. compliment to say something nice to someone in order to praise them

3. extol (formal) to praise someone very much

4. flatter to praise someone in an insincere way in order to please them or get something from them

5. be flattered to be pleased because someone has shown you that they like or admire you

6. rhapsodise to talk about something in an eager, excited, and approving way


7. criticise to express your disapproval of someone or something, or to talk about their faults

8. condemn to say very strongly that you disapprove of someone or something, especially because you think it is morally wrong

9. denounce to say strongly that you disapprove of someone or something, especially in public

10. censure (formal) to officially criticise someone for something they have done wrong

11. slash to criticise sharply

12. find fault with to criticise someone or something, often unfairly and frequently

13. blame to say or think that someone or something is responsible for something bad

14. accuse to say that someone is guilty of a crime or of doing something bad

15. charge to state officially that someone is guilty of a crime

16. recriminate to accuse someone in return


17. reproach (formal) to speak to someone in a way that shows you are disappointed, but not angry

18. reprove (formal) to speak to someone severely about something they have done wrong

19. reprimand | rebuke (formal) to tell someone officially that something they have done is very wrong

20. admonish (formal) to reprove someone, especially in a mild and good-willed manner

21. expostulate (formal) to speak to someone earnestly, especially in order to dissuade them from doing something

22. dress down to speak angrily or severely to someone about something they have done wrong

23. tell off (especially of a teacher, parent, manager, etc.) to speak angrily to someone because they have done something wrong

24. scold to speak angrily to someone, especially a child, about something they have done

25. lash out to suddenly speak angrily to someone

26. lecture to speak angrily or seriously to someone in order to criticise or warn them, in a way that they think is unfair or unnecessary





  = Mr Brown: I must say youve been very helpful, Mr Cashman. Thank you very much.
  Mr Cashman: Oh, thats all right. Youre always welcome at our bank.
  = Mr Brown expressed his gratitude to the bank manager for his assistance.
  = Mr Brown: I dont know how to thank you. You actually saved my life.
  Mr Smith: Dont mention it. It was no trouble at all.
  = Mr Brown said (that) he was very grateful to Mr Smith for saving his life. Mr Smith brushed it all aside and assured Mr Brown that it had not inconvenienced him in any way.



1. John (effusively/heartily/profusely/sincerely) thanked Peter for his help.  
2. John expressed/gave/said (his) thanks to his colleagues.  
3. John said (that) he was (very) grateful/thankful to Peter for helping him.  
4. John was grateful/thankful (that) Peter had helped him.  
5. John expressed his (effusive/profuse) gratitude to Peter for his assistance.  
6. John was effusive/profuse in his gratitude/thanks.  


Replies to formulas of thanks neednt be put into indirect speech they are often omitted. They are reported, however, if they convey some essential information. To express this kind of information, you can use one of the following phrases.


1. Peter accepted Johns thanks.  
2. Peter brushed/swept it all aside/away and assured John/and said that it had been no trouble at all.  




1. thank to tell someone that you are pleased and grateful for something they have done

2. thanks (n.) the things you say or do to show that you are grateful to someone

3. grateful feeling that you want to thank someone because of something kind that they have done

4. thankful grateful and glad about something that has happened, especially because without it the situation would be much worse

5. gratitude the feeling of being grateful

6. brush aside/away | sweep aside to refuse to pay attention to something someone says

7. effusive showing strong excited feelings

8. profuse too eager or generous with your praise, thanks, etc.





  = Mr Jones: Excuse me for troubling you, but youve taken my seat.
  Mr Brown: Oh, have I? Sorry. I didnt mean to.
  Mr Jones: Never mind.
  = Mr Jones apologised to Mr Brown for troubling him but, in his opinion, the latter had taken his seat. Mr Brown admitted that and asked Mr Jones to excuse him for his mistake saying that he had not meant to do it.
  = John: Im terribly sorry for being rude yesterday night. I didnt mean to hurt you. Itll never happen again.
  Mary: Its unpardonable. You spoilt the whole party.
  = John asked Mary to pardon him for his rudeness. He promised her that it would never happen again. But Mary was too much hurt to forgive him. She said (that) he had spoilt the whole party.




1. John apologised (to Peter) (for being late).    
2. John apologised (humbly/effusively/profusely).    
3. John was apologetic about/for his blunder/arriving late.  
4. John excused himself (for his rude remark/making a rude remark).  
5. John made an excuse/excuses for his rude remark/making a rude remark.  
6. John asked/begged Peter to excuse/forgive/pardon him for his late arrival/being late.  
7. John asked / begged Peter to excuse / pardon his conduct/ his being rude.  
8. John asked/begged Peter to forgive (him) his rudeness.    
9. John said (that) he was sorry (for his mistake).    
10. John made / offered / presented his apology /an apology / his apologies (to Peter) (for his late arrival/being late).    
11. John offered Peter his abject / effusive / humble / profound / profuse / public / sincere apologies (for his mistake).    
12. John was effusive/profuse in his apologies.    


Replies to apologies are not always reported. If they are, this is done in one of the following ways.


1. Peter brushed aside/away swept aside Johns apologies.
2. Peter accepted Johns apologies.  
3. Peter said (that) it was all right.    
4. Peter rejected Johns apology/excuse. apologies/excuses.
5. Peter was too much hurt to forgive John.  




1. apologise to tell someone that you are sorry that you have done something wrong

2. forgive to decide not to blame someone or be angry with them although they have done something wrong

3. excuse to forgive someone for doing something that is not seriously wrong, such as being rude or careless

4. excuse yourself to offer an excuse

5. pardon (old-fashioned) to forgive someone for behaving badly




  = John: I dont believe a word of what youre saying!
  Peter: Its outrageous! No one has ever doubted my word.
  = John told Peter (that) he didnt believe his story. Peter got offended/took offence at Johns remark saying (that) no one had ever doubted his word.
  = John: What a fool you are, Peter!
  = John insulted Peter.
  John flung an insult at Peter.






1. John insulted/offended/abused Peter.    
2. John flung/hurled/shouted an insult/insults/abuse at Peter.  
3. John heaped/showered abuse on Peter.    
4. John became abusive/used abusive language to Peter.    
5. John greeted him with a shower/stream of abuse. (formal)    
6. Peter was offended got offended by John. at/by Johns remark.  
7. John caused/gave offence to Peter.    
8. John took offence (at every remark).    
9. Peter took/swallowed Johns insult(s).    
10. John said (that) it outraged his sense of justice.    
11. John said it was an outrage against/on public dignity/ public morality. to allow such practices. that such practices were allowed.  
12. John said it was outrageous to allow such practices. that such practices were allowed.  





1. offend to hurt someones feelings by making them angry or upset

2. insult to say or do something that is rude and offensive to someone

3. abuse to say rude or offensive things to someone

4. outrage to make someone feel very angry and shocked

5. outrageous very shocking and extremely unfair or offensive


Functions of expressing emotion



Interest and indifference


  = John: And what was Peters role in this affair? He seems to have had a hand in it too. Please tell me all about it.
  = John was curious about Peters role in the affair and wanted his interlocutor to tell him everything about it.
  = John: Im the heavyweight boxing champion now! I beat Tyson yesterday. I knocked him out.
  Mary: So what?
  = Mary showed indifference to Johns success in boxing. She treated with complete nonchalance the news that he had beaten Tyson and become the heavyweight boxing champion.





John interested Peter in a dull subject. in buying the house.  
Peter was/became/got/grew interested in a dull subject/in buying the house.    
John was curious inquisitive about/as to Peters role in the affair. about/as to what had happened.  
John was interested anxious eager (that) Peter (should) agree to his plan.  
John asked anxiously/curiously/inquiringly/inquisitively if Peter had seen the girl.  
John had took felt showed expressed demonstrated displayed manifested an interest a great interest keen interest much interest in Peters ideas.  
The matter story news aroused excited generated stirred revived Johns interest. a lot of interest in his proposal.  
John said it / listened to Peter with eagerness / eager attention.  
John was excited about/at/over the news.  
John was enthralled by/with an exciting story.  
John was enthusing about/over the book he had read.    
John enthused Peter.    
John was/became/got/grew enthusiastic about/over/at Peters plans.  
John felt/showed/demonstrated/displayed enthusiasm about/for Peters plans.  
The story fascinated/intrigued John.  
John was fascinated at/by/with Peters ideas/story. to learn of Peters success.  
The news held Johns interest.    
The speaker held his audience spellbound.    
John carried away/along Peter with his fine speech/words/ promises/enthusiasm.  
Peter was got carried away carried along by Johns words/enthusiasm.  
John was willing to tell Peter everything he knew about the matter.  
John expressed/showed/demonstrated the willingness to tell Peter everything he knew about the matter.  
John was bursting to tell Peter the news.    
John couldnt wait to tell Peter the news.    




John treated Peter / his suggestion with (complete) indifference/apathy/nonchalance.  
John was remained indifferent apathetic impassive nonchalant to/towards Peter. to/towards his proposal. about/concerning the matter. in the dispute.  
John felt showed displayed indifference apathy nonchalance to/towards Peter. to/towards his proposal. about/concerning the matter. in the dispute.  
  John His story bored Peter (to death/sleep/tears). (by talking for hours on end about his adventures).  
John was/got bored (listening to Peter/his story). (with Peter/his story). (stiff by their trivial conversation).  
It was boring/tiresome to listen to Peters stories.    
John listened to his story with a bored / impassive / nonchalant expression/face/look on his face.  
John received the news with an air of indifference / boredom / nonchalance.  




interested giving a lot of attention to something because you want to find out more about it

eager very keen and excited about something that is going to happen or about something you want to do

excited happy, interested, or hopeful because something good has happened or will happen

anxious very worried about something that may happen or may have happened so that you think about it all the time

curious wanting to know about something

inquisitive asking too many questions and trying to find out too many details about something or someone

enthralled so interested that you pay a lot of attention to what you are seeing or hearing

enthuse (1) to talk about something in a very interested or excited way

(2) to make someone interested in something or excited by it

enthusiastic showing a lot of interest and excitement about something

fascinated extremely interested by something or someone

spellbound extremely interested in something you are listening to

be/get carried away/along to be so excited, angry, interested, etc. that you are no longer really in control of what you do or say, or forget everything else

intrigue to make someone very interested, especially because it seems strange or mysterious

be willing to do sth. to be prepared to do something

be bursting to do sth. (informal) to want to do something very much

cant wait to do sth. to feel excited and impatient about something that is going to happen soon


indifferent not caring about what is happening, especially about other peoples problems or feelings

apathetic not excited about something and not caring whether it happens, or not interested in anything and unwilling to make an effort to change and improve things

impassive not showing any emotion or feeling

nonchalant behaving calmly and seeming not to worry or care about anything

bored tired and impatient because you do not think something is interesting, or because you have nothing to do


Pleasure and displeasure



  = John: Were going to Italy for our holidays!
  Mary: How thrilling!
  = Mary was delighted/thrilled to learn that they were going to Italy for their holidays.
  John told Mary (that) they were going to Italy for their holidays and Mary got delighted/thrilled at the news.
  = John: Good Heavens! Ive left my umbrella behind and its raining again.
  = As it was raining, John was annoyed that he had left his umbrella behind.




John said cheerfully/ delightfully/ happily/ joyfully (that) it was the best performance he had ever seen.  
John said in/with admiration (that) it was the best performance he had ever seen.  
John said with delight/joy/satisfaction (that) it was the best performance he had ever seen.  
John felt expressed (his) delight/joy/pleasure at the news. admiration of/for his new painting. satisfaction with/about/at their work. exhilaration about/at the news. exultation at/in/over their victory.  
John was filled with admiration for Peters courage.    
John was felt looked glad about their success. happy about/with his work. pleased with Peter. pleased about/at/with his exam results. delighted at/by/with the news. exhilarated by the news. impressed with/by his friends work. overjoyed at their success. satisfied with the exam results.  
John was / felt / looked pleased / delighted / overjoyed at learning/hearing good news/going to the seaside.    
John was happy about learning/hearing good news/going to the seaside.    
John was/felt glad/happy/pleased/delighted/overjoyed/ satisfied/thrilled to tell the story/to hear/learn the story.    
John was glad / happy / pleased / delighted / overjoyed / satisfied that their proposal had been accepted.    
It pleased John delighted John made John glad made John happy to tell the story. to hear/learn the latest news. that their product was a success.  
John was thrilled with delight/joy/pleasure.    
John delighted in took delight in scandal. teasing Peter.  
John rejoiced in/over Peter. at/in/over the news. in giving presents to his friends. to hear/learn the good news. that Peter had agreed to his plan.  
John admired Peters behaviour/his book (for the way the characters were drawn).    
John exulted at/in their success. to find that they had succeeded.  
John was bursting with joy over the news.    
  John His speech made a strong favourable unfavourable impression on the audience.  
John got/gained a favourable/unfavourable impression of Peter/his work.  



John said in/with displeasure / dissatisfaction / disappointment / annoyance / exasperation / irritation (that) he would never put up with it.  
John said in anger / disgust / indignation (that) he would never put up with it.  
John said in a resentful tone (that) he would never put up with it.  
John said angrily / indignantly / resentfully (that) he would never put up with it.  
John felt showed expressed (his) displeasure with the exam results. dissatisfaction with/about/at his living conditions. disappointment about/at/over the exam results. anger at/towards/with their plans. disgust with the boss. disgust at/with his behaviour. indignation against/with the boss. indignation about/at/over gross injustice. resentment against/towards her. resentment about/at/towards her conduct.  
John felt showed expressed (his) annoyance exasperation irritation at/with Peter. about/at/over his conduct.  
John was felt got looked displeased with/by his friend. displeased with/by/at his behaviour. dissatisfied with his salary. disappointed in/with his friend. disappointed with/about/at his work. angry with/at his neighbour. angry about/at the delay. disgusted with his boss. disgusted with/by/at his conduct.  
John was felt got looked annoyed by/with/at Peter. exasperated about/at/with/by his conduct. irritated about/at/with/by his behaviour. peevish about Peters behaviour.  
John was felt got looked indignant with his boss. indignant about/at/over gross injustice. resentful about/at/of her behaviour. enraged at/by/over Peters complacency. furious with/at (esp. AmE) Peter. furious about/at/over his way of talking. infuriated with Peter.  
John was felt looked displeased dissatisfied disappointed annoyed disgusted exasperated irritated angry indignant resentful furious at hearing/learning the news. to hear/learn the news.  
John was displeased disappointed annoyed disgusted angry furious that they hadnt turned up yet.  
It displeased / disappointed / annoyed / disgusted / exasperated / irritated / enraged John to hear / learn Peters story.  
It made John angry / indignant / resentful / furious to hear / learn Peters story.  
John resented criticism/having to wait/Peter(s) being there.  
Their bad manners angered / disgusted / enraged / infuriated / maddened John.  
Their bad manners filled John with disgust.    
John was got went mad with/at (esp. AmE) Peter. about/at the news. about/at hearing/learning the news.  
John was got went wild with anger/fury. over the report.  
The news drove / made / sent John mad / wild with anger/fury.  
20. John His temper flared up/out flamed up/out fired up flashed out blazed up (at Peter/the news). (at what he heard). (when he learnt the news).  
The news fired John up.    
John said it blundered it out blurted it out in a fit of temper.  


: 2015-09-04; : 288.


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