1. John told Peter the story/the news/his name. the story/the news/his name to Peter. (Peter) about/of the incident. Peter (that) he had never seen the boy. Peter what he thought about it. Peter when he would come/how he would do it.  
2. John informed Peter about/of their decision. (that) the meeting had been postponed.  
3. John informed Peter where the man was hiding. how they could contact their customer.  
4. John notified the police of the crime/incident. the crime/incident to the police. the authorities that he would resign. the authorities where he could be reached. Peter to sign the contract. (BrE)  
5. John let Peter know that the meeting had been postponed.    
6. John filled Peter in on the incident. what had happened.  
7. John passed/handed the news on (to Peter).  
8. John passed the information along.  
9. John passed the message along/down the line (of people).  
10. John broke the (bad) news (to Peter). the news of his fathers death to Peter.  
11. John briefed the reporters (on/about the case/the recent developments).  
12. John reported the news to the chairperson. the discovery of a new piece of evidence. (to the manager) on his progress.  
13. John reported back quickly. to the group. his findings to the committee. that they had made a profit on the deal.  
14.John didnt know what was going on, so he asked Peter to put him in the picture.  
15.John kept his boss posted about the companys financial situation.  



1. John announced the news (to the reporters). (to his friends) the date of the wedding. (to his friends) that he would soon get married.  
2. John made a public/formal announcement of/about his marriage.  
3. John declared the results of the election. the meeting open/closed.  
4. John declared his total opposition to the plan. himself (to be) their true friend.  
5. John declared (that) he knew nothing about the matter.  
6. John broadcast the news to all his friends.  
7. They gave (it) out (on the radio) that the President had returned.  
8. It was given out (on the radio) that the President had returned.  
9. The news was given out that the President had fallen ill.  
10. The date of the election was given out after the meeting.  
11. The news of/about their marriage came out two days ago.  
12. It came out at the meeting that nothing had been done yet.  
13. John revealed the secret/truth (to Peter). (to Peter) that he was involved in the crime.  
14. John disclosed the facts (to the press). that Peter had never been there before.  
15. John let out the date of Peters arrival. that Peter was going to arrive the next day.  
16.John leaked the news/story to the press.  
17. John leaked out the news/story/secret.    
18.The news of his appointment leaked out/got out/filtered out yesterday.  




1. say to express ones ideas in words orally

2. state to say something formally, carefully, clearly and fully

3. exclaim (formal) to say something loudly and suddenly, as in surprise, strong emotion, or protest

4. remark to say something that you have just noticed

5. add to say or write further

6. blurt out | blunder out to say something suddenly and without thinking, usually because you are nervous or excited


7. speak | talk to convey ones ideas in words orally

8. chat (informal) to talk in a friendly way

9. chatter to talk quickly, continuously and for a long time, usually about something unimportant


10. tell | let someone know to give someone information about something

11. inform to tell someone something, especially formally or officially

12. notify to tell someone something formally or officially

13. fill in to tell someone about something that has happened recently

14. pass on/along/down | hand on to tell someone something that you have been told by someone else

15. break to tell someone some bad news, especially trying to lessen its negative effect

16. brief to tell someone everything necessary for them to know about a situation

17. report to tell someone about what has been happening as part of your job

18. put someone in the picture to tell someone about something so that they can understand it

19. keep someone posted to continue telling someone the latest news about something

20.announce | give out (BrE) (formal) to tell people about something publicly and usually officially

21.declare to tell people about something publicly and officially

22.broadcast to tell many people about something


23.come out to become publicly known, especially after being kept secret

24.reveal to make something known, especially after being kept secret

25.disclose to make something publicly known, especially after being kept secret

26.let out to allow something to become known

27.leak (out) to allow secret information to become publicly known, especially by sending it to the mass media

28.leak out | get out (of secret information) to become publicly known, especially through the mass media

29.filter out to become known gradually and usually unintentionally


(2)Speak to, talk to and chat to are more usual in British English. Speak with, talk with and chat with are common to both British and American English.

(3)To is preferred when the idea of addressing someone is to be expressed: Ive often passed him in the street, but Ive never spoken to him. | The chairman was asked to speak to the meeting. With is used when an exchange of remarks is implied: May I speak with you for a moment? | He spoke with her for an hour.



Stages of a conversation


  = John: Hello, Peter. Nice to see you. I hear youve been promoted. Congratulations. Let me tell you
  = John struck up a conversation with Peter. He began by congratulating him on his promotion. Then he went on to say
  = The speaker: In conclusion, Id like to tell you a funny story illustrating the points I made earlier in the lecture
  = The speaker ended off his speech with an amusing story.




John began started to speak/talk. speaking/talking. (his speech/story) with a joke. (his speech/story) by telling a joke. a conversation with Peter.
John started off by telling a joke.  
John struck up a conversation with Peter.  



1. John continued (to speak/talk). (speaking/talking). (his speech/story). (his conversation with Peter). (with his speech/story).
2. John carried on (speaking/talking). (his speech/story). (his conversation with Peter). (with his speech/story).
3. John kept on (speaking/talking). (with his speech/story).
4. John kept speaking/talking.
5. John went on (speaking/talking). (with his speech/story).
6. John went on to the next piece of business. to give details of the meeting.



John stopped/left off talking to Peter. his conversation with Peter.  
John finished talking to Peter. his conversation with Peter.  
John was through got through with talking to Peter. with his conversation with Peter.  
John brought his speech to an end/close/conclusion.    
John ended concluded finished (his speech) with a joke. by/with telling a joke.  
John ended off his speech with a joke. his speech by telling a joke.  
John concluded wound up his speech (with a joke). his speech by telling a joke. by declaring that he would resign his post.



1. John interrupted (Peter) while he was talking to Anne. (Peter) to say that he didnt believe the story.
2. John intervened to say that he didnt believe the story.
3. John cut short the speaker because he had been talking too long.
4. John cut off Peters remarks/speech/story. the speaker because he had been talking too long.
5. John broke in cut in (very rudely). on them/their conversation.
6. John broke/cut into their conversation with demands for attention.
7. John broke off in the middle of a sentence/a funny story.
8. John broke off to answer the phone. telling the story to answer the phone.
9. John put/threw/tossed in a word or two/his remark/his opinion.
10. John interposed/interjected a few comments at that point.
11. John interspersed witty remarks throughout his speech.
12. Johns speech was interspersed with witty remarks/telling examples.




1. begin | start to (cause to) go into a state of activity

2. start off (informal) to (cause to) begin doing something, such as speaking at length

3. strike up to begin a relationship or conversation, usually informal


4. continue | keep (on) to (cause to) go on over a longer period of time without stopping

5. go on (1) to continue what you have been doing

(2) pass on | move on to do something after you have finished doing something else

6. carry on (esp. BrE) to continue, especially in spite of an interruption or difficulties


7. stop | leave off (informal) to (cause to) no longer continue an activity

8. finish | end (off) | conclude (rather formal) to come or bring something to an end

9. be/get through with to bring something to an end

10. wind up to bring something to an orderly end


11. interrupt to stop someone from continuing what they are saying or doing by suddenly speaking or doing something else

12. intervene to interrupt, especially to prevent a bad result

13. cut short to interrupt someone who is talking

14. cut off to interrupt someone or something

15. break off to suddenly stop doing something, especially speaking

16. break in | cut in (informal) to join a conversation by interrupting someone or saying something suddenly

17. break into | cut into to interrupt an activity by saying or doing something

18. put in | throw in | toss in to interrupt someone in order to say something

19. interpose (formal) to say something between the parts of a conversation or argument

20. interject (formal) to interrupt what someone else is saying with a sudden remark

21. intersperse to put something in between pieces of speech or writing


Greeting and leave-taking


  = Mr Fox: Good morning, Mr Jackson.
  Mr Jackson: Good morning. How are you?
  Mr Fox: Very well, thank you. And how are you?
  Mr Jackson: Quite well, thanks.
  = Mr Fox and Mr Jackson greeted each other.
  = Mary: Hello, Anne. Nice to see you at my place.
  Anne: Hello, Mary. Nice to see you, too.
  = Mary welcomed Anne (to her place).
  = Lecturer: Good morning, everyone. Todays lecture deals with recent trends in education.
  = The lecturer greeted the audience and announced the topic of his lecture.  
  = Brian: Im afraid I must be going now.
  Susan: Must you really?
  Brian: Yes, Im afraid so. Ive got an appointment.
  Susan: Well, I wont keep you then.
  Brian: Goodbye.
  Susan: Goodbye.
  = Brian and Susan said goodbye to each other.
  Brian took (his) leave (of Susan).
  Brian said goodbye to Susan and left.
  Brian bade Susan goodbye and left.



1. John greeted Peter (by saying/shouting a friendly hello). Mary with a friendly hello/smile/kiss.  
2. They greeted Peter with loud/polite/enthusiastic applause.    
3. John greeted Peter but he didnt return his/the greeting.    
4. John said/bade good morning/hello to Peter.    
5. John bade Peter good morning/hello.    
6. John and Peter greeted each other.    
7. John welcomed Peter (to his place).    
8. They   gave bade extended us a warm cordial hearty enthusiastic friendly sincere cold greeting. welcome.  
9. They   gave bade extended a warm greeting/welcome to us.  
10. They received a warm cold welcome (from the Mayor). (to their new country).



1. John said/bade (his) goodbye to them.    
2. John bade Peter goodbye.    
3. John took (his) leave (of Peter).    
4. John wished Peter good night.    
5. John said goodbye to Peter and parted company with him.  
6. They said goodbye to one another and separated/parted/ parted company.  


Note. Words of greeting or leave-taking may be preceded or followed by such words as How are you?, How are you getting on?, Hows life?, Nice to see you, Havent seen you for ages, Im afraid I must be off. These are not necessarily reported.





1. greet to say hello to someone

2. welcome to say hello in a friendly way to someone who has just arrived

3. bid sb. good morning/good afternoon/etc. (old use) or (literary) to say good morning/good afternoon/etc. to someone

4. take (ones) leave (of sb.) (formal) to say goodbye to someone; to go away

5. separate (from sb.) | part (from sb.) | part company (with sb.) (rather formal) to move apart; to go in different directions




  = Mr Stiles: Mr Peacock, Id like you to meet Mr White, a colleague of mine. Mr White, this is Mr Peacock.
  Mr Peacock: How do you do?
  Mr White: How do you do?
  = Mr Stiles introduced Mr Peacock to Mr White.
  Mr Stiles introduced Mr Peacock and Mr White to each other and they shook hands.
  = Mike: Hello, my names Mike.
  Peter: Hello. Nice to meet you. Im Peter.
  = Mike introduced himself to Peter.
  Mike introduced himself to Peter and they shook hands (with each other).
  Mike introduced himself to Peter and shook his hand.




1. Mr Jones introduced Mr Smith to/and Mr Brown.  
2. Mr Jones introduced Mr Smith and Mr Brown to each other and they shook hands (with each other)/shook each others hands/shook each other by the hand.  
3. Mr Jones introduced himself to Mr Brown and shook his hand.  
4. Meeting/Coming up to Mr Brown, Mr Jones introduced himself.  
5. Mr Jones made introductions all round. (= Mr Jones introduced many people to one another.)  
6. Mr Jones made the introductions and they all shook hands.  




1. introduce to make known for the first time to each other or someone else, especially by telling two people each others names

2. introduction (often plural) an occasion of telling people each others names

3. shake hands (with sb.) | shake sb.s hand | shake sb. by the hand to take and hold someones right hand in ones own for a moment, often moving it up and down, as a sign of greeting, goodbye, agreement, or pleasure



Asking and answering questions


  = John: Excuse me, whats your surname?
  Peter: Brown.
  = John asked the man his surname. The man answered (that) he was Brown.
  = John: Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the post office?
  = John inquired the way to the post office.
  = John: Have you brought the money?
  Peter: Yes, I have.
  = John wanted to know if Peter had brought the money. The latter replied in the affirmative.




1. John asked (the man) his name/a question. (the man) about Peter/the missing papers. after Peter/Peters health. a question of the man. (the man) where to go/what to do. (the man) if/whether he would like to do it. (the man) what he was doing there.  
2. John inquired the way to the airport/station/theatre. about the trains. after Peter/Peters health. where to go/what to do. where the man had come from. of Peter the reason for his departure. of Peter what he was doing there.  
3. John inquired/queried if/whether Peter would come back.  
4. John wondered (out loud/aloud) if/whether Peter would be able to help. what Peter knew about the matter. why Peter hadnt phoned him.  
5. John   wanted to know was interested to know was eager to know was anxious to know if/whether they had agreed to his proposal.  
6. John raised/brought up a thorny question/query about/as to the current economic crisis.  
7. The police questioned the man in connection with the robbery.  
8. The police interrogated the suspect for several hours.  
9. They interviewed Mr Brown (for the job).    
10. John   sounded out felt out the members of the committee. Peters views on/about the new project.  
11. John sounded/felt the manager out (on/about his plans).  
12. John pumped Peter (for details of the other contracts). the truth out (of Peter). out of Peter what his plans were.  


1. John answered nothing/Peter/Peters question/letter. (that) he had no idea about it. in the affirmative/negative.  
2. John replied to Peter/Peters question/his letter. (that) he had no idea about it. in the affirmative/negative.  
3. John made/gave an affirmative / negative / direct / vague answer/reply to his question/letter.  
4. John gave Peter an affirmative/negative answer/reply (to his request).  
5. The   answer reply (to his request) was in the affirmative/ negative. was a strong affirmative/ negative.  
6. John said nothing in reply (to the mans question).  
7. John said in reply that he didnt know the man.  
8. In reply/answer to the mans question John said that he had never been to China.  
9. John retorted (heatedly) (that) he needed no favours.    
10. John made an insolent/sharp retort (to his words/remark/ accusation).  
11. John talked back/answered back (to his boss).  
12. John answered Peter/him back.    




1. ask | inquire/enquire (esp. BrE) | want to know | be interested to know to say or write something in order to get information

2. be eager to know | be anxious to know to express a strong wish to get information

3. query to ask a question, especially one raising a doubt about the truth of something

4. wonder to ask a question, in words or silently

5. question to ask someone questions to find out what they know about something

6. interview to ask someone questions, especially in a formal way, in order to find out if they are good enough for a job, course of study, etc.

7. interrogate to ask someone a lot of questions for a long time in order to get information, sometimes using threats

8. sound out | feel out (AmE) (informal) to ask someone questions in order to find out what they think about a plan, proposal or idea

9. pump (informal) to ask someone a lot of questions in order to find out something

10. answer | reply to say or write something to someone after they have asked you a question, made a suggestion, etc.

11. retort to answer quickly, in an angry or humorous way

12. talk back | answer back to answer someone rudely or in defence of yourself

Requesting and ordering


  = John: Would you mind waiting a minute?
  Peter: Not at all.
  = John asked Peter to wait a minute.
  = The officer: Fall in!
  = The officer ordered/commanded his men to fall in.
  = The manager: Every employee is to be punctual.
  = The manager demanded/required that every employee (should) be punctual.




1. John asked (Peter) for a drink/book. for the taxi/car to come at 10 oclock.
2. John asked Peter a favour. a favour of Peter. Peters advice about it. Peter to give him a lift to the station.
3. John asked permission (to go/leave). to see the manager/to go/to get up. to be excused/to be forgiven. that they (should) be allowed to leave. (formal) that he/they might go. (formal)
4. John requested assistance (from Peter). a favour (of Peter). Mr Brown to render them assistance. (of Mr Brown) that he (should) render them assistance.
5. They made an urgent request for more money. to the Mayors office. with the appropriate authorities. to be allowed to be present at the meeting. that he (should) be punctual in the payment of his rent.
6. The chairman invited questions/opinions after his speech. Peter to comment on the recent events.


1. John told Peter to do it quickly/Peter how to behave.  
2. John instructed Peter to do the job/where to go.  
3. John   said told them (that) they were to be punctual. (that) they were not to be late.
4. The doctor said to stay in bed. (informal)  
5. They required silence of all examination candidates. all examination candidates to keep silent. that everyone (should) attend the meeting. (of their staff) that they (should) attend the meeting.
6. John demanded help/an apology/explanation (from Peter). to speak to the manager. to know where the man lived.
7. John demanded to be told the truth. that Peter (should) help him.
8. The general ordered an attack/silence. his division to the front. his division to march to the front. that his men (should) advance.
9. The officer commanded his men to fire. that his men (should) fall in.
10. The doctor ordered him (a) complete rest/absolute quiet. his patient to take a months rest.
11. The general gave received an order orders a command to attack. for the operation to be resumed. that the operation (should) be resumed.


: 2015-09-04; : 138.


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