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GENERAL POINTS OF GRAMMAR AND USAGE 4




III.

1. John appealed (to them) for help/any information about the missing child. for funds to build a school. to them to help the poor.
2. John made an appeal for help. to the public for donations.  
3. John begged (Peter) for help/mercy. (for) forgiveness. a favour (of Peter). (of) Peter to help him. to come with us/to be allowed to join us. money (from Peter). that he/they (should) be allowed to join us. that he/they might come with us.
4. John   entreated implored Peters forgiveness. a favour (of Peter). Peter to help him/to be merciful. the judge for mercy.
5. John pleaded (with Peter) for mercy/more time/money. with Peter to let him have another try (at it).
           

 

Vocabulary

1. ask (1) to make a request for something or to someone

(2) to request to be allowed to do something

2. request (formal) to ask for something politely or formally (If you request something, you usually have the right to get what you are asking for.)

3. invite (formal) to politely ask someone to do something

4. tell to say that someone must do something

5. say (informal) to tell someone to do something

6. instruct to officially tell someone what to do

7. demand to ask for something very firmly, especially something that someone does not want to give you

8. require to officially demand that people do something, because of a law or rule

9. order to tell someone to do something, using your authority or power

10. command to tell someone officially to do something, especially if you are a military leader, a king, etc.

11. appeal to make a strong public request for help, money, information, etc.

12. beg to ask for something in an anxious or urgent way, because you want it very much

13. entreat (formal) | implore (formal) | plead to ask for something that you want very much in a sincere and emotional way

Persuasion

 

  = John: You must go there immediately.
  = John persuaded Peter to go there immediately.  
  = John: You should read more. Itll help you to get a better grasp of the nations culture.
  = John convinced his son (that) it was necessary to read more because it would help him to get a better grasp of the nations culture.  
  = The coach: You have a very good chance of winning the race. You have everything for it. You must have absolute confidence in your ability.
  = The coach assured the sportsman (that) the latter had a very good chance of winning the race.

 

Patterns

 

1. John   convinced persuaded Peter of the truth of the statement. Peter (that) it was necessary to read more.  
2. John was convinced that Peter was telling the truth.    
3. John expressed his conviction that television was harmful to children.  
4. John spoke in the full conviction that television was harmful to children.  
5. John persuaded/convinced/coaxed Peter to go to university.  
6. John   argued reasoned talked coaxed Peter into/out of agreement with them. Peter into/out of accepting the proposal.  
7. John urged Peter to buy a new car. that Peter (should) buy a new car.  
8. John won Peter over/(a)round brought Peter over/(a)round gained Peter over got Peter (a)round (by being especially considerate). (to his point of view).  
9. John came over/(a)round to went over/across to Peters opinion. believing in friendship.  
10. The teacher assured reassured his pupil about/of his progress. his pupil that he was doing well.  
11. The teacher reassured his pupil.    
12. John dissuaded discouraged deterred Peter from that course of action. Peter from going to the party.  
                       

 

Vocabulary

 

1. convince (1) to make someone feel sure about something

(2) to make someone decide to do something by repeatedly telling them reasons why they should do so

2. persuade (1) to make someone decide to do something by repeatedly telling them reasons why they should do so

(2) to make someone feel sure about something

3. reason/talk sb. into/out of sth./doing sth. to persuade someone to do or not to do something

4. argue sb. into/out of sth./doing sth. (esp. BrE) to persuade someone to do or not to do something, often with strong feeling

5. coax sb. into/out of sth./doing sth. to persuade someone to do or not to do something by talking to them in a kind, gentle and patient way

6. win over/(a)round | gain over | bring over/(a)round | get (a)round to persuade someone to do what you want or to agree with you by being nice to them

7. come over/(a)round | go over/across to change your opinion to another point of view

 

8. assure to tell someone that something will definitely happen or is definitely true so that they are less worried

9. reassure to make someone feel calmer and less worried or frightened about a problem or situation

 

10. dissuade to persuade someone not to do something

11. discourage | deter to persuade someone not to do something by making them realise that it will be difficult or will have unpleasant results

 

 

Explanation

 

  = The teacher: Why were you absent yesterday?
  The schoolboy: I had a bad headache.
  = The teacher asked the schoolboy why he had been absent from school the previous day. The latter explained (that) he had missed the classes because of a bad headache.
   
  = John: Why did our local team suffer such a crushing defeat?
  Peter: I dont know. Its quite beyond me.
  = John asked Peter why their local team had suffered such a crushing defeat. But Peter couldnt account for that it was quite beyond him.

 

Patterns

1. John explained the meaning of the word (to Peter). (to Peter) (that) the plane was delayed. (to Peter) what the word meant.  
2. John provided/gave/offered an explanation for/of his absence/behaviour/decision.  
3. In explanation of his absence, John said that he had been detained at the office.  
4. John said a few words by way of explanation.  
5. By way of explanation, John said (that) he had been delayed by the traffic.  
6. John couldnt account for their defeat. losing the game. the fact that they had lost. why they had lost the game.  
7. John clarified/elucidated the statement/the causes of the accident.  
8. John spelt out the meaning of the statement (for Peter). what he meant. (for Peter) why he had accepted the offer.  
9. John cleared up the mystery of Peters disappearance.  
10. John   interpreted construed Peters silence as consent/a refusal. Peters silence as meaning consent. Peters remarks as offensive.  
11. John attributed/ascribed his success to hard work.  
12. John put/set his success down to hard work.    
13. John illustrated the meaning of the word with a sentence.  
14. John gave offered a typical illustration/a few illustrations of Peters meanness/cowardice.  
15. John provided a typical illustration/a few illustrations of Peters meanness/cowardice.  
16. John made an interpretation of gave a wrong interpretation to put a different interpretation on Peters silence.  
17. By illustration, John told the story of Peters failure.  
18. John misinterpreted Peters silence (as a refusal). (as giving consent).  
                       

 

Vocabulary

 

1. explain (1) to make something clear or easy to understand

(2) to give a reason for something

2. account for to give a satisfactory explanation of something

3. clarify to make something clearer and easier to understand

4. elucidate (formal) to explain something that is difficult to understand very clearly by providing more information

5. spell out to explain something clearly and in detail

6. clear up (1) to find the whole explanation for something that is strange and hard to understand, such as a crime

(2) to make sure that everyone involved in something understands all the facts and agrees, so that there will be no problems

 

7. interpret | construe (formal) to understand or explain the meaning of something in a particular way

8. attribute to | ascribe to (formal) | put/set down to to explain the reason for something, especially when you are only guessing

 

9. illustrate to make the meaning of something clearer by giving examples

 

10. misinterpret to understand or explain the meaning of something wrongly

Invitation

 

  = Mr Jones: Would you like to go to the theatre?
  Ms Smith: Id like to very much.
  = Mr Jones invited Ms Smith to the theatre and she readily accepted the invitation.
  Mr Jones asked Ms Smith out to the theatre and she said (that) she would go most willingly.
  = John: Would you like to come and have dinner with us?
  Rose: If youd like me to.
  = John invited Rose to have dinner with them. Rose accepted the invitation but was not enthusiastic about it.
  John invited Rose to have dinner with them. Rose was not willing to go but accepted the invitation.
  = John: Do you feel like going for a picnic?
  Kate: I wish I could, but I have a splitting headache.
  = John invited Kate to go on a picnic but she pleaded a splitting headache.
  John invited Kate to go on a picnic but she declined the invitation.

Patterns

 

Invitations are reported as follows.

1. John invited/asked Mary (out) to dinner/the theatre.    
2. John invited/asked Mary out.    
3. John invited/asked Mary over/round (to his place) (for coffee).  
4. John invited Mary to have dinner with him.    
5. John received/got an invitation to the party. to attend the reception.  
6. John sent/extended an invitation to the Mayor.    
       

 

Invitations are either accepted or refused. Acceptance is reported in the following way.

 

1. Mary (readily) accepted his invitation.    
2. Mary accepted his invitation most willingly.    
3. Mary said (that) she would like to come very much. she would come most willingly. she would be happy to come.  
4. Mary caught / clutched / grabbed / jumped / snapped / snatched at his invitation.    
5. Mary was not willing to go but accepted the invitation.    
6. After some hesitation Mary accepted the invitation.    
7. Mary accepted the invitation but was not enthusiastic about it.  
       

 

Refusal is reported in the way illustrated below.

 

1. Mary refused/declined/spurned his invitation.  
2. Mary refused absolutely / categorically / completely / outright / point-blank to go to the theatre.  
3. Mary absolutely / emphatically / flatly / positively refused the invitation.  
4. Mary gave an emphatic / flat / outright / point-blank / positive refusal.  
5. Mary declined his invitation pleading a splitting headache/ urgent work.  
6. Mary pleaded a splitting headache/urgent work.  

 

Vocabulary

 

1. invite to ask someone to come, especially to a social occasion

2. invite out | ask out to ask someone to go to a social occasion that is to take place outside your home

3. invite over/round | ask over/round to ask someone to come to your home for a short time, usually for a drink or a meal

 

4. accept to say yes to an idea, plan, suggestion, offer, invitation, etc.

5. catch at | clutch at | grab at (informal) | jump at | snap at (informal) | snatch at to accept something willingly

 

6. refuse to say no to something that you have been offered

7. decline to refuse to accept something, usually politely

8. spurn (esp. literary) to refuse to accept something or to have a relationship with someone, especially because you are too proud

 

Suggestion, offer and advice

 

  = John: Where shall we go in summer?
  Mary: Lets go to Spain for a couple of weeks.
  John: Yes, lets.
  = John wanted to know where they should go in summer. Mary suggested going to Spain for a couple of weeks and John welcomed the suggestion.
   
  = John: Shall I see you home?
  Mary: Yes, that would be very nice.
  = John offered to see Mary home and she willingly accepted the offer.
  John offered to see Mary home and she said (that) it would be nice of him to do so.
   
  = John: Ive got a splitting headache.
  Mary: Why dont you take some medicine?
  John: I think I should.
  = John complained that he had a splitting headache. Mary advised him to take some medicine and John agreed to do so.

 

I. Suggestions may be reported in one of the following ways.

 

1. John   suggested proposed a visit to the theatre/an alternative plan. going to the theatre. (that) they (should) go to the theatre. (that) they went to the theatre.
2. John   made offered presented put forward put forth set forward a suggestion a proposal about/concerning the trip. for a joint project. to hold a debate. that they (should) hold a debate.
         

Suggestions are either accepted or rejected. If accepted, they are phrased in one of the following ways.

 

1. John accepted / agreed to / adopted their suggestion / proposal.  
2. John liked the idea.    
3. John agreed to go to the theatre.    
4. John said (that) he didnt/wouldnt mind going to the theatre. (that) he had nothing against it.  
5. They fell in with the chairmans suggestion/proposal. the chairman on that question.  
6. John responded by saying (that) he didnt mind going to the theatre.  
         

 

An alternative suggestion may be reported as illustrated below.

But John said (that) he would rather go to the cinema. (that) he would prefer to go to the cinema. (that) they had better go to the cinema.

 

If suggestions are rejected, it is expressed in the following way.

 

1. John refused (absolutely / categorically / completely / outright / point-blank) (to go to the theatre).  
2. John gave Peter a definite / emphatic / flat / outright / point-blank / positive refusal.  
3. John declined Peters suggestion/proposal/idea. to go to the theatre.  
4. John turned down / rejected / spurned their suggestion / proposal/idea.  
5. John completely / flatly / totally turned down their suggestion/proposal/idea.  
6. John (strongly) objected to (a boat trip up the Thames). going to the theatre. their/them going there.  
7. John was (all) against their visit to New York. their suggestion/proposal/idea. going to the theatre. accepting their suggestion/proposal.  
8. John said (that) he didnt feel like going to the theatre.    
9. John responded by saying (that) he didnt want to go to the theatre.  
10. Johns suggestion/proposal/idea met with a cold refusal. (literary)  
           

II. Offers are reported in one of the following ways.

 

1. John offered to help Peter. Peter his help. his help to Peter.
2. John volunteered a statement to the police. to do the job. for the job.
3. John made (Peter) an offer (of $ 50000 for the house).  
4. Peter had an offer of $ 50000 for the house.  
       

 

Offers are either accepted or rejected. Acceptance is reported as follows.

1. John (willingly) accepted/agreed to their offer.    
2. John (coldly/warmly) welcomed Peters offer.    
3. John liked Peters idea.    
4. John had nothing against it.    
5. John said (that) it would be very kind/nice of Peter to do so. (that) he would like to be given help.  
6. John responded by saying (that) he would be happy to be given help. (formal)  
       

 

Refusal is reported as illustrated below.

1. John refused (to have any more cake). Peters offer.  
2. John refused absolutely / categorically / completely / outright / point-blank (to have a drink).  
3. John declined the offer. to take the job.  
4. John (completely / flatly / totally) turned down / rejected / spurned their offer (of help).  
5. John gave Peter a definite / emphatic / flat / outright / point-blank / positive refusal.  
6. John (strongly) objected to their help. Peters/Peter helping them.  
7. John was (all) against their help. Peters/Peter helping them.  
8. John said (that) Peter neednt help them.    
9. John responded by saying(that) he was against their help. (formal)  
10. Peters offer met with a cold refusal. (literary)    
             

 

III. Advice is reported as follows.

 

1. John advised an early start. (their) staying at home. them to stay at home. (them) that they (should) stay at home. them what to do/where to go.  
2. John advised (them) about/on their problems. making the trip. whether to make the trip. whether they should make the trip.  
3. John wanted Peter to advise him whether he should accept the offer.  
4. John advised (Peter) against that course of action. signing the contract.  
5. John said/told Peter (that) he should drive carefully.  
6. John recommended caution in dealing with the matter. (their) staying at home. them to stay at home. (to them) that they (should) stay at home. (to them) that they stayed at home.  
7. John gave / offered Peter his advice / a piece of advice / a bit of advice / a word of advice / a few words of advice.  
8. John gave/offered his advice to Peter.    
9. John gave/offered Peter some good/sensible/sound/wise/ unsolicited/misleading advice.  
10. John gave Peter a recommendation to stay at home.    
11. Johns advice/recommendation (to Peter) was to stay at home.  
12. Johns advice/recommendation (to Peter) was that they (should) stay at home.  
               

 

A response to advice is not always given and even if it is, it is not normally reported. However, if there is a response to a piece of advice it may be reported in the following way.

 

1. John accepted/took his advice (to stay at home). (that he should stay at home).  
2. John agreed to do so.    
3. John liked the idea.    
4. John said (that) he would (gladly) do so.    
5. John had nothing against it.    
6. John responded by saying (that) he would follow her advice. (formal)  
7. John disregarded/ignored/refused/turned a deaf ear to her advice.  
       

 

Sometimes there are actions following the taking of advice and these are reported as illustrated below.

 

1. John   followed Peters advice acted on Peters advice (to stay at home). (that they should stay at home).
2. John did as he had been/was advised to.  
       

 

A request for a piece of advice is reported as follows.

 

John asked for/solicited Peters advice (about/on the matter).

 

Vocabulary

 

1. suggest (1) to give someone your ideas about what you and he or she should do together

(2) advise to tell someone what they should do, especially when you know more about something than they do

2. propose (formal) to suggest something as a plan or course of action

3. offer (1) to say that you are willing to give someone something

(2) to say that you are willing to do something

4. volunteer to offer to do something without expecting any reward, usually something that other people do not want to do

5. advise to tell someone what they should do, especially when you know more about something than they do

6. recommend to advise someone to do something, especially because you have special knowledge of a situation or subject

 

7. accept | agree to to say yes to an idea, plan, suggestion, offer, invitation, etc.

8. fall in with to accept someones suggestion, decision, etc.

9. welcome to accept an idea, plan, suggestion, offer, etc. happily

10. adopt to formally approve a proposal, especially by voting

 

11. refuse to say no to something that you have been offered

12. turn down to refuse to accept an offer, suggestion, invitation, or request

13. decline to refuse to accept something, usually politely

14. reject to refuse to accept an offer, suggestion, or request

15. spurn (esp. literary) to refuse to accept something or to have a relationship with someone, especially because you are too proud

 

Reject Spurn Refuse Turn down Decline







: 2015-09-04; : 102.

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