7. predict to say that something will happen or that something will happen in a particular way

8. forecast to say what is likely to happen in the future, based on information that is available now

9. foretell | prophesy to say what will happen in the future, especially by using special religious or magical knowledge

10. apprehension anxiety about the future, especially the worry that you will have to deal with something unpleasant

11. premonition | presentiment (formal) a strange and unexplainable feeling that something, especially something unpleasant, is going to happen

12. foreboding a feeling that something very unpleasant is going to happen

13. misgiving a feeling of doubt, distrust, or fear about what might happen or about whether something is right



    = John: Id like to make a couple of quick comments about these two essays. Mr Browns essay seems Mr Johnsons essay is certainly
  = John compared Mr Browns essay with Mr Johnsons.
  = The speaker: Todays economic situation is very similar to that of the 1930s.
  = The speaker drew a parallel between the current economic situation and that of the 1930s.




1. John compared Peters essay with/to/and Marys.
2. John compared their essays/two speakers.
3. John made a comparison of British literature with/and American literature.
4. John drew a comparison between British and American literature.
5. In his speech John contrasted Peters stated principles with/and his behaviour.
6. John contrasted their essays/two speakers.
7. The poet compared likened sleep to death. her eyes to the sky.
8. John made a comparison of New York to a beehive.
9. John drew a parallel between the current economic situation and that of the 1930s.
10. John equated wealth with/and happiness.
11. John balanced one argument against/with the other. his good qualities against/with his faults. the advantages of the scheme against/with its disadvantages.



1. compare (1) (with/to) to examine two or more things, people, ideas, etc. in order to show how they are similar to or different from each other

(2) (to) | liken to (formal) to say that someone or something is like someone or something else

2. contrast to compare two things, people, ideas, etc. to show how different they are from each other

3. equate to consider two or more things as being similar or connected





  = The chairman: So what follows from the discussions held in the past week is that the merger with our parent firm is undesirable.
  = The chairman concluded/drew the conclusion that the merger with their parent firm was undesirable.
  = John: From Peters garbled story I can gather (that) hes not very happy with his new job.
  = From Peters garbled story John deduced that he was not satisfied with his new job.




1. John concluded that Peter was not to blame.  
2. John deduced/inferred/gathered (from his statement / excitement) that Peter knew something about the matter.  
3. John deduced/inferred (the fact) that Peter was not guilty.  
4. John deduced/inferred little from Peters garbled story.  
5. John deduced/inferred what had happened/where Peter was hiding/who was to blame.  
6. John arrived at/came to/jumped to/drew/reached the conclusion that Peter had done nothing wrong.  
7. John drew/made a correct / reasonable / tenable / valid / erroneous / invalid / wrong conclusion / deduction / inference from the facts/evidence.  
8. John drew/made a/the deduction/inference that Peter was not guilty.  
9. John confirmed Marys deduction/inference that Peter was not guilty.  
10. John worked out the answer / conclusion by deduction/ inference.  
11. John generalised about education systems in different countries.  
12. John generalised a rule/a valid conclusion from this collection of instances/facts.  
13. John made a broad sweeping valid generalisation about (taking) exercise. that the economy is quite healthy.
14. It followed (from what John said) (that) Peter couldnt be relied on.  
15. John warned Peter not to jump to conclusions.  




1. conclude to decide that something is true after considering all the information you have

2. deduce (formal) | infer to form an opinion (by the process of reasoning) that something is probably true, on the basis of a careful examination of all the information you have

3. gather to form an opinion that something is probably true, because of something that you have heard or seen


4. generalise to make a general statement about a number of different things or people without mentioning any details

5. follow to be true as a result of something else that is true

6. jump to conclusions to form an opinion about something before you have all the facts


Functions of showing attitude



Approval and disapproval


  = John: Peter has a nice hobby now its harmless and keeps him busy all the time.
  = John approved of Peters hobby because it was harmless and kept him busy all the time.
  = John: The way Peter treats his wife is disgusting.
  = John disapproved of the way Peter treated his wife.



1. John approved of Peter/Peters choice.  
2. John gave a nod of approval.    
3. The president favoured further tax cuts. cutting taxes.  
4. They were/came out (all) in favour of his proposals.    
5. They applauded the decision to go ahead with the new plan.    
6. John didnt hold with these modern ideas. letting pupils do such things.  
7. John was (all/strongly) for/against her suggestion. accepting the offer.  
8. The city council approved the building plans.    
9. John gave their plans his approval.    
10. John gave his approval to/for their plans.    
11. John received their approval to carry on with his plans/work.  
12. John expressed voiced nodded (his) approval (of the plan).  
13. The new proposals won the approval of the board. met with their approval. (formal)  
14. The president (fully) endorsed his candidacy.    
15. The president gave his endorsement to them/their plans.  
16. The president gave them/their plans his endorsement.  
17. They okayed/OKed Johns request for a loan.  
18. John gave them his okay/OK (to go on with their plans).  
19. John gave his OK/okay to them.  
20. John got the okay/OK (to go on with his plans).  
21. The government gave its/their blessing to the new plan.  



1. John disapproved of Peter/his intentions. Peter(s) playing cards.  
2. John expressed/voiced (his) (strong) disapproval of Peters behaviour.  
3. John remonstrated (with Peter) about/against his foolish behaviour.  
4. They (deeply/thoroughly) deplored their violent behaviour. their taking drugs.  
5. John frowned on/at Peters idea/any disobedience. on smoking in public.  
6. John took a dim/poor view of Peters conduct.    
7. John shook his head/finger (at Peter) (in disapproval).    
8. Congress disapproved the legislation.  





1. approve of to think or say that someone or something is good, right, or suitable

2. approve to officially accept a plan, proposal, etc.

3. favour to think that a plan, idea, etc. is better than other plans, ideas, etc.

4. applaud to express strong approval of an idea, plan, etc.

5. hold with to approve of or agree with something

6. endorse/indorse to express formal support or approval for someone or something, often by public statement

7. okay/OK (informal) to say officially that you will agree to something or allow it to happen

8. blessing someones approval or encouragement for a plan, activity, idea, etc.


9. disapprove of to think or say that someone or something is bad or unsuitable

10. disapprove to refuse to officially accept a plan, proposal, etc.

11. remonstrate (formal) to tell someone that you strongly disapprove of something they have said or done

12. deplore to disapprove very strongly of something and criticise it severely, especially publicly

13. frown at/on to disapprove of someone or something, especially someones behaviour

14. take a dim/poor view of to disapprove of something


15. shake your head (at) to move your head from side to side as a way of saying no or showing disapproval

16. shake your finger (at) to indicate disapproval or warning

Trust and distrust


  = John: Her story sounds plausible.
  = John believed her story.  
  = The teacher: I dont have much trust in this approach to education.
  = The teacher doubted the value of that approach to education.




1. John believed Peter/Peters story. Peter to be innocent. Peter to have done nothing wrong. (that) Peter was innocent.  
2. It was Johns belief that Peter was innocent.    
3. John trusted Peter/Peters judgement. Peter to do the job by himself.  
4. John had no great belief in didnt have much trust in Peter/his honesty.  
5. John placed/put his trust/much trust/absolute trust/blind trust / perfect trust / unquestioning trust in Peter / his judgement/promises.  



1. John disbelieved Peter/Peters statement. what Peter said.  
2. John distrusted/mistrusted Peter/his practices.      
3. John had a (great/strong) distrust/mistrust of foreigners.    
4. John doubted Peters honesty/the truth of his statement. if/whether/that they would benefit by further study.  
5. John didnt doubt that they would succeed.    
6. Did John doubt that they would succeed?      
7. John had no/little doubt that they would succeed.    
8. Did John have any/much doubt that they would succeed?    
9. John had/felt/entertained/harboured doubts about it.    
10. John had a doubt some doubt (his) doubts about/of/as to their success. about/of/as to that being true. about/of/as to whether they would succeed. about/of/as to who did it. if/whether they would succeed.  
11. John expressed   doubts (a) doubt a deep doubt a reasonable doubt a serious doubt a slight doubt a strong doubt about the matter. that they would succeed.  
12. Johns proposal/words raised (a) doubt/serious doubts in Peters mind.      
13. Johns explanations dispelled/resolved all doubts.    
14. John was doubtful felt doubtful (about/of the matter). (about/of whether they would succeed). (about/of who did it). (if/whether/that they would succeed).  
15. John wasnt doubtful that they would succeed.    
16. Was John doubtful that they would succeed?    
17. John questioned queried his honesty/the truth of his statement. if/whether they would succeed.  
18. John suspected his motives/the truth of his statement. him of murder/robbery. him of giving false evidence. (that) he was the murderer.  
19. John had entertained harboured a suspicion about/of his motives. that Peter was dishonest.  
20. Johns behaviour/words aroused/caused/created / stirred (a) suspicion/their suspicions.  
21. Johns behaviour words confirmed Peters suspicion(s). cast suspicion on Peter. allayed/dispelled suspicion(s).  
22. John was/felt suspicious about/of Peter/his intentions.  
23. John was sceptical about/of their success.  
24. John took Peters statement with a grain/pinch of salt.  



1. believe to be sure that something is true or that someone is telling the truth

2. trust to believe that someone is honest and will not harm you, cheat you, etc.


3. disbelieve (formal) to refuse to believe something or someone

4. distrust to lack trust or confidence in someone or something

5. mistrust to lack trust or confidence in someone, especially because you think they may treat you unfairly or dishonestly


6. doubt (1) (if/whether) to be uncertain about something

(2) (that) to disbelieve something

7. doubtful (1) (if/whether) being uncertain about something

(2) (that) disbelieving something

8. question to have or express doubts about something

9. query to express doubt that something is true or correct

10. suspect (1) to think that something is probably true or likely, especially something bad

(2) to think that someone is probably guilty

11. sceptical (BrE) | skeptical (AmE) tending to doubt or not believe what other people tell you

12. take sth. with a grain/pinch of salt (informal) not to completely believe what someone tells you because you know that they do not always tell the truth


13. allay (formal) to make someone feel less afraid, worried, suspicious, etc.

14. dispel to stop someone believing or feeling something, especially because it is wrong or harmful


Note. Doubt and doubtful may be followed by clauses introduced by either if/whether or that. If or whether is normally used to convey the meaning of uncertainty, whereas that is generally employed to express disbelief. That is also the usual choice when the truth of the clause following doubt or doubtful is assumed, as in interrogative and negative sentences. Thus both John never doubted that they would succeed and Did John doubt that they would succeed? imply They succeeded.



Respect and disrespect


  = John: I know Mr Charlton as a knowledgeable person and I cant but feel respect for him.
  = John said in a respectful tone that he knew Mr Charlton as a knowledgeable person.
  = John: Now, you two, stop butting in and get back to your work.
  = John said with a sneer that the two of them ought to stop breaking in on their conversation and should get back to their work.




1. John respected Peter as a knowledgeable person.    
2. John had/showed respect/reverence for his listeners / their interests.    
3. John said it respectfully/reverently. in a respectful/reverent tone/voice.  
4. John said it out of respect for his friend.    
5. John was respectful/reverent to other people.      
6. John regarded/talked to Peter with respect/reverence.    
7. John held Peter/his opinions in (great) respect.  
8. John was tolerant towards other people. of criticism/other peoples opinions.  



1. John showed meant intended disrespect irreverence disdain for the boss. for other peoples needs.  
2. John was disrespectful/irreverent to other people.      
3. John disdained flattery/their offers of help. to reply to his remark.  
4. John scorned Peter/his proposal/offer of help. flattering his boss. to flatter his boss.  
5. John felt expressed showed displayed demonstrated (his) contempt (his) scorn (his) disdain for his colleagues. for their opinions.  
6. John treated Peter/his proposal with contempt/disdain/ scorn.  
7. John heaped/poured contempt/disdain/ridicule/scorn on Peter/his proposal.  
8. John was filled with scorn for Peter/his proposal.  
9. John dismissed Peters proposal with contempt/disdain/ scorn.  
10. John was disdainful/scornful of/towards such people/ their remarks/offers of help.  
11. John said / told them contemptuously / disdainfully / jeeringly / mockingly / scornfully / sneeringly (that) they ought to get back to their work.  
12. John said / told them in a contemptuous / disdainful / jeering / mocking / scornful / sneering tone/voice (that) they ought to get back to their work.  
13. John said / told them with contempt / disdain / scorn / a sneer (that) they ought to get back to their work.  
14. John spoke/thought ill/unfavourably of Peter/his ideas.  
15. John laughed/scoffed at Peter/his ideas.  
16. John mocked (at) Peter/his plans.  
17. John made fun of/poked fun at Peter/his ideas.  
18. John ridiculed Peters suggestions/proposals/ideas.  
19. John exposed Peter to public ridicule.  
20. John held Peter/his books up to ridicule/mockery.  
21. John said it was ridiculous to behave that way. that Peter behaved that way.  
22. John derided Peters efforts/plans (as childish).  
23. John jeered at the speaker.  
24. John sneered at Peter/their religion.  
25. John teased Peter (about his long ears/bald head).  
26. John taunted Peter (about/with cowardice). (about/with/for being fat).  



1. respect to admire someone because they have high standards and good personal qualities such as fairness and honesty

2. respect (n.) admiration for someone, especially because of their personal qualities, knowledge or skill

3. reverence (n.) (formal) great respect and admiration for someone or something

4. tolerant allowing people to do, say, or believe what they want without punishing or criticising them


5. disrespect lack of respect for someone or something

6. contempt | scorn a feeling that someone or something is not important and deserves no respect

7. disdain (n.) a complete lack of respect that you show for someone or something because you think they are not at all worth paying attention to

8. disdain (1) to have no respect for someone or something, and believe they are unimportant

(2) to refuse to do something because you are too proud to do it

9. scorn to refuse to accept ideas, suggestions, etc. because you think they are stupid, old-fashioned, or unreasonable

10. laugh at to treat someone or something as if they are stupid, by laughing or making funny and unkind remarks about them

11. scoff at to laugh at a person or idea, and talk about them in a way that shows you think they are stupid

12. mock (at) (formal) | make fun of | poke fun at to laugh at someone or something and try to make them look stupid by making unkind remarks about them or by copying them

13. ridicule to laugh at a person, idea, institution, etc. in order to make them seem stupid

14. deride (formal) to laugh at someone or something in order to show that you think they are silly or useless

15. jeer to laugh unkindly at someone to show that you strongly disapprove of them

16. sneer to smile or speak in a very unkind way that shows you have no respect for someone or something

17. tease to make jokes and laugh at someone in order to have fun by embarrassing them, either in a friendly way or in an unkind way

18. taunt to try to make someone angry or upset by saying unkind things or by laughing at their faults, failures, etc.



Praise and criticism


  = Mary: Oh, Peters the best sportsman in town, the best writer in the country and the best son in the world.
  = Mary praised her son to the skies.
  Mary lavished praise on her son.
  = John: Mr Browns latest book is no good at all. The plot is far too complicated, the characters are unconvincing and the dialogue is poor.
  = John criticised Mr Browns book for its complicated plot, unconvincing characters and poor dialogue.




1. John praised Peter (for his contribution to the relief fund). Peter (for helping his friend). the meal (as very delicious). Peter/his film to the skies.  
2. John spoke in praise of Peter who had contributed greatly to the just cause.  
3. John sang Peters praises. the praises of Peters book.  
4. John heaped/lavished praise(s) on Peter.    
5. John gave praise to Peter.    
6. John complimented Peter (on his organisational talent). Mary (on her new hat).  
7. John paid Peter a nice/sincere compliment (on his progress in his studies). a nice/sincere compliment to Mary (on her new coat).  
8. John lavished/rained/showered compliments on Peter (on his success).  
9. Peter was showered with compliments (on his success).    
10. John was highly complimentary about Peters work.    
11. John extolled Peter (to the skies). Peter as a hero/great footballer. the merits/virtues of free enterprise.  
12. John flattered Peter (on his skill at using the computer). himself (on his knowledge of geography). himself that he was the best tennis player in the office.  
13. John was flattered at/by Peters invitation. to be invited. that he had been invited.  
14. John spoke highly/well of Peter/his book.    
15. The newspapers rhapsodised about / over the young singers performance.    
16. Mary was in/went into rhapsodies about/over the beauty of the view from her bedroom window.    


: 2015-09-04; : 117.

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