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GENERAL POINTS OF GRAMMAR AND USAGE 9




Vocabulary

 

pleasure a feeling of happiness or satisfaction that you get from an experience you enjoy

happiness a feeling of pleasure and contentment, for example because something good has happened to you

satisfaction a feeling of happiness or pleasure because you have achieved something or got what you wanted

joy great happiness and pleasure

delight a feeling of great pleasure and satisfaction, which usually does not last long

exultation (formal) a feeling of great happiness and pride, especially because you have succeeded in doing something

admiration a feeling of pleasure and respect, caused by a quality someone has or by something they have done

glad pleased and happy about something

thrilled very excited, happy and pleased

exhilarated extremely happy and excited

overjoyed extremely pleased or happy

impressed admiring someone or something because you notice how good, clever, successful, etc. they are

be bursting with to be full of a feeling

rejoice (literary) to feel or show that you are very happy

 

displeasure (formal) the feeling of being annoyed with someone because you do not approve of their behaviour

annoyance a feeling of slight anger and unhappiness

irritation a feeling of annoyance or impatience experienced over a long period, especially because of something that is done repeatedly

exasperation a feeling of great annoyance or impatience experienced over a long period, especially because of something that is done repeatedly

dissatisfaction the feeling of not being satisfied

disappointment a feeling of sadness caused by something that is not as good as you expected it to be, or has not happened in the way you hoped it would

anger a strong feeling of displeasure, when you want to harm, hurt, or criticise someone because they have done something unfair, cruel, offensive, etc.

fury | rage a feeling of extreme, often uncontrolled anger

indignation feelings of righteous anger and surprise because you feel insulted or unfairly treated

resentment a feeling of suppressed anger because something has happened that you think is unfair

disgust a very strong feeling of dislike that almost makes you sick, caused by something unpleasant

mad (informal) (esp. AmE) angry

furious extremely angry

wild feeling or expressing strong uncontrolled emotions, especially anger, happiness, or excitement

blurt out | blunder out to say something suddenly and without thinking, usually because you are nervous or excited

flare up/out | flame up/out | flash out | blaze up (1) to show sudden increased anger, activity, or violence

(2) to speak angrily

fire up to (cause to) increase in heat, anger, or violence

 

Surprise

 

  = John: I met Peter yesterday. Do you know what hes now? The managing director of a large company!
  Mary: You dont say so!
  = Mary expressed surprise at the news that Peter had become the managing director of a large company.
  = John: Peters just called. He said hed won the race.
  Mary: Fancy that! Who couldve expected that of him!
  = John told Mary (that) Peter had called to inform them of his winning the race. Mary was very surprised that he had managed to do it.
  Mary was very surprised to learn that Peter had won the race, as no one, she thought, could have expected it of him.

 

Patterns

John said in/with surprise/astonishment/amazement (that) he had heard nothing about it.  
John expressed (his) surprise/astonishment/amazement at their approach to the problem.  
John was surprised astonished amazed astounded startled shocked dumbfounded flabbergasted at the news/his arrival. at hearing/learning the news. to hear/learn the news. (that) Peter didnt object. (that) Peter should object.  
John was taken aback by her unexpected arrival.    
It surprised astonished amazed astounded startled shocked John to hear/learn the news/truth. that the local team had won the game.  
               

Vocabulary

 

surprise the feeling you have when something unexpected or unusual happens

astonishment a feeling of complete surprise

amazement a feeling of great surprise, often mixed with extreme mental confusion

shocked feeling surprised and upset by something very unexpected and unpleasant

astounded very surprised or shocked

dumbfounded surprised or shocked to such an extent that you are very confused and cannot speak

flabbergasted (informal) extremely surprised or shocked

startled feeling surprised or slightly shocked

be taken aback to be very surprised or shocked by something

 

 

Worry

 

  = John: Im worried about my son. He doesnt do well at school.
  = John was worried/anxious/upset about his son doing badly at school.
   
  = Peter: I dont feel at all happy about my prospects in this company.
  = Peter expressed (his) anxiety about his prospects in the company.

 

Patterns

 

John worried about Peter. about Peter saying such things. about/over trifles.  
John was felt became got grew worried about something. (that) his wife hadnt called him yet.  
John was felt became got grew anxious about/at the news. alarmed at/by/over the latest news. concerned about/over the latest news. disturbed about/over/by/at the news. perturbed by/at/about/over the news. troubled to hear/learn about her problems.  
John was felt became got grew uneasy about/at the latest news. upset about/by/over the tragic news. upset with Peter (about his progress).  
John was concerned disturbed upset about what he heard. to hear/learn of their failure. that he wouldnt see his friend.  
John showed signs of worry felt worry felt uneasiness about/over the news.  
The news caused John great worry.    
John said it listened to it in/with alarm. with anxiety/ uneasiness.  
It was alarming disturbing perturbing worrying to hear/learn the news. that so few people volunteered to help.  
                       

Vocabulary

 

worried unhappy or anxious because you keep thinking about a problem

anxious very worried about something that may happen or may have happened, so that you think about it all the time

troubled worried or anxious

concerned worried about something

disturbed worried or slightly shocked

upset unhappy and worried because something unpleasant or disappointing has happened

alarmed frightened and worried

perturbed worried or annoyed because of something that has happened

uneasy nervous, anxious and unable to relax because you think something bad might happen

Fear

 

  = Mary: What a thunderstorm! It gives me the shivers even to look out.
  = Mary was frightened of the thunderstorm raging outside.
  = Jane: Stop them! They may beat one another to death.
  = Jane was horrified by the sight of people fighting and wanted someone to stop them.

 

Patterns

 

John said cried (out) exclaimed screamed shouted yelled in/with fear fright dread dismay horror terror panic (that they were doomed to die).  
John said / cried (out) / exclaimed / screamed / shouted / yelled in a frightened voice (that they were doomed to die).    
John said it out of/from fear.    
John lied for fear of being dismissed. that he would be dismissed.  
John (said he) was afraid of the dark. for his children/his job. to open the door. of falling down from that height. that he would/might lose it.  
John feared old age/death/defeat. for Peters safety/life. his friend(s) getting into danger. to tell Peter the truth. that he would be late/miss the train.  
The news aroused / inspired / instilled / kindled / allayed / dispelled fear in John.  
The news confirmed Johns fears.  
His words struck fear into Johns heart.    
John gave Peter a (nasty/sudden) fright/scare by shouting at him.  
John was got grew appalled at/by dismayed at/by frightened at/of/about horrified at/by scared at/by terrified at/of/by petrified (with fear) at/by the tragic news. what he heard.  
John was got grew appalled dismayed frightened horrified scared terrified petrified (with fear) to hear of his death. that he had been betrayed.  
It horrified/scared John (to hear/learn) that he had been betrayed.  
John felt expressed (his) dismay at/with horror at/of the crime.  
The news of the train crash filled John with dismay / horror / terror.  
John was filled with dismay horror terror by the news of the accident. to hear/learn of it.  
(Much) to Johns horror, Peter was at a loss for words.  
The news frightened scared terrified John to death/half to death. out of his life/wits. silly/stiff.  
It was appalling to hear/learn the news. that so many schoolchildren smoked.  
John panicked got panicky was panic-stricken got panic-stricken (at the news). (at hearing/learning the news).  
John felt panic got into a panic was thrown into (a) panic (at the news). (when he realised what had happened).  
The news panicked John (into accepting Peters conditions).  
                                               

 

Vocabulary

 

afraid very frightened or worried about something

frightened feeling afraid

fear an unpleasant feeling of being frightened or worried that something bad is going to happen

fright sudden, usually momentary fear characterised by great agitation

dismay the worry, disappointment and unhappiness you feel when something unpleasant happens

dread strong fear of something in the future

horror a strong feeling which is a combination of shock, fear and repugnance

terror a feeling of extreme fear

scare a sudden feeling of fear

panic a sudden strong feeling of fear or nervousness that makes you unable to think clearly or behave sensibly

appalled very shocked by something bad or unpleasant

petrified extremely frightened, especially so frightened that you cannot move or think

 

 

Sorrow, pity and regret

 

  = John: Im really sorry that all Peters plans have been frustrated.
  = John expressed (his) sorrow that Peters plans had been frustrated.
   
  = Peter: Its a pity that I cant do anything about it.
  = Peter wished he could do something about it.
  Peter expressed regret at being unable to do anything about it.

 

Patterns

I.

John said with sorrow/sadness/melancholy (that) his plans had been frustrated.  
John said in despair/grief (that) his plans had been frustrated.  
John said in a cheerless / sad / melancholy / gloomy / miserable/pathetic tone/voice (that) his plans had been frustrated.  
John said sadly/gloomily/pathetically (that) his plans had been frustrated.  
John felt showed expressed (his) (deep) (great) (keen) (profound) sorrow over that loss. at her death. for having let him down.  
John felt / showed / expressed (a) (deep / all-pervading) gloom about/over the situation.    
John felt/showed/expressed (deep/profound) sadness over the situation.  
John felt showed expressed suffered (bitter) (deep) (inconsolable) (profound) (overwhelming) grief for his friend. over her death. at bad news.  
The news of defeat drove John to despair. filled John with despair.  
It depressed saddened John to hear/learn (the) bad news. that he hadnt heard from them for a long time.  
The thought of Peters arrival depressed John.      
It was depressing sad pathetic to hear/learn about Johns failure. that business was at a standstill.  
John was became got grew depressed depressed despondent gloomy unhappy unhappy unhappy sad sad at the news of the plane crash. to hear/learn the news. about/over/at his prospects. about/over the future. about/at/over the news. to hear/learn the news. that they wouldnt come. about the situation. that they couldnt come.
                                 

II.

John felt showed expressed (deep) (keen) regret at/over/for his mistake. at/over being unable to do the job.
John felt/showed pity for his friend.  
John had/took pity took compassion on the orphan.
John had felt expressed (deep) (great) (profound) (little) sympathy for Peter.
John lavished sympathy on the homeless family.  
John had felt showed demonstrated displayed (deep) (profound) (strong) compassion for Peter.
John was filled with pity/compassion for his friend.  
John pitied his friend for his failure.  
John sympathised with his friends problems. with his friend about his failure.
The story moved her to tears (of sympathy). moved her deeply/greatly/profoundly.
Mary was moved to tears. with pity/compassion. by her friends sad story/entreaties.
The story stirred her pity/sympathy.  
John was stirred to the depths by the tragic news.  
                         

III.

John regretted his decision to leave his home town. leaving/having left his home town. his friends leaving his home town. that he had failed to help his friend.  
John regretted to say / tell / inform Peter (that) he was deeply in debt. (formal)  
John said/heard with regret (that) his friend was unwell.  
John wished (that) Peter had more common sense. Peter hadnt gone to Africa. Peter could play chess. the weather would clear up.  
Much to his regret, John was unable to accept Peters invitation.    
John was / felt sympathetic / compassionate to / towards /with his friend.  
       

 

 

Vocabulary

sadness unhappiness, especially because something unpleasant has happened to you or someone else

sorrow a feeling of great sadness, usually because someone has died or because something terrible has happened

melancholy (formal) a feeling of sadness for no particular reason, which is usually a lingering or habitual state of mind

gloom a feeling of great sadness and lack of hope

grief extreme sadness, especially because someone you love has died

despair a feeling that you have no hope at all for the future

depressed feeling very unhappy

despondent unhappy and not hopeful

 

sympathy the feeling of being sorry for someone who is in a bad situation and understanding how they feel

sympathise to feel sorry for someone because you understand their problems

pity sympathy for someone who is suffering or unhappy

compassion a strong feeling of sympathy for someone who is suffering, and a desire to help them

pathetic making you feel pity or sympathy

 

regret sadness that you feel about something because you wish it had not happened or that you had not done it

wish to want something to be true although you know it is either impossible or unlikely

move to make someone feel strong feelings, especially of sadness or sympathy

stir to make someone have a strong feeling or reaction

 

Consolation

 

  = John: My house has been broken into.
  Peter: Im sorry to hear this. But try not to worry about it too much.
  = John told Peter (that) his house had been broken into. Peter said (that) he was sorry to hear that and tried to comfort his friend.
  = John: Dont let it upset you. It mightve been worse. Let me tell you what I did in a similar situation last year.
  = John tried to console and cheer up Peter.

 

Patterns

 

John calmed (down)/comforted/consoled Peter after his defeat/failure.  
John comforted Peter for the tragic death of his friend.  
John consoled Peter for/on the loss of his close friend.  
John calmed (down)/comforted/consoled Peter by telling him the story of his own life.  
John comforted/consoled himself with the thought that it might have been worse.  
John offered Peter his consolation / a crumb of comfort (for/on the loss of his friend).  
John said/spoke a few words of consolation/comfort/a few comforting words to Peter.  
The news gave/brought John consolation/comfort.    
The news gave/brought consolation/comfort to John.    
John cheered (up) Peter.    
John reassured Peter (about his support). (that they wouldnt be late).  
Peter was felt reassured (by Johns offer of support). (after John had told him that he would support him).  
           

 

Vocabulary

 

console to make someone feel better when they are feeling sad or disappointed

consolation someone or something that makes you feel better when you are sad or disappointed

comfort to make someone feel calmer and more hopeful by being kind and sympathetic to them when they are worried or unhappy

comfort (n.) a feeling of being more calm, cheerful, or hopeful after you have been worried or unhappy

calm (down) to make someone or something quiet after strong emotion or nervous activity

cheer (up) to make someone feel more hopeful when they are worried

reassure to make someone feel calmer and less worried or frightened about a problem or situation

 

Courage

 

  = John: Im not afraid of you, sir. But I hate to continue working with you. Ill hand in my resignation tomorrow.
  = John had the courage/plucked up all his courage to speak to his boss and inform him of his intention to resign.
   
  = Peter: Youll never be able to intimidate me again. Im through with my fear. And Id like to tell you what I think of you.
  = Peter was bold/audacious/daring enough to tell John what he thought of him.

 

Patterns

 

John boldly / bravely / courageously / audaciously / daringly / fearlessly / rashly / recklessly told Peter what he thought of him.  
John was bold / brave / courageous / audacious / daring / fearless / rash / reckless enough to speak to Peter about the matter.  
It was bold / brave / courageous / audacious / daring / fearless / rash / reckless of John to speak to Peter about the matter.  
John was so bold as to ask Peter about it.    
John showed / demonstrated / displayed (dauntless / indomitable / remarkable / sheer) courage / audacity at hearing/learning the news | when he heard/learnt the news.  
John got up / mustered (up) / plucked up / screwed up / summoned up / worked up all his courage to speak to his boss.  
John took his courage in both hands and approached the manager about a pay rise.  
John screwed himself up to speak to the manager.      
John had/lacked the courage/audacity to tell Peter what he thought of him.  
Reckless of danger/the consequences, John told Peter the whole truth.  
John hazarded a guess/remark.  
John ventured (to put forward) an opinion of his own. to disagree with Peter. to suggest that the idea wasnt workable.  
John had nerve enough/the nerve to say what he thought.  
John wanted to say what he thought but lost his nerve. When he regained his nerve there was no one to speak to.  
John didnt dare (to) speak in her presence.    
John had the guts to argue with his boss.    
John didnt have the heart to tell Peter the truth.    
       

 

Vocabulary

 

bold | courageous not afraid of taking risks and making difficult decisions

brave facing danger, pain, or difficult situations with courage and confidence

audacious brave, shocking and extremely confident when taking risks or saying impolite things

daring willing to do something that is dangerous or that involves a lot of risk

fearless not afraid of anything

nerve the ability to stay calm and confident in a dangerous, difficult or frightening situation

heart determination and strength of purpose

guts (informal) the courage and determination you need to do something difficult or unpleasant

dare to be brave enough or rude enough to do something dangerous, difficult, or unpleasant

reckless not caring or worrying about the possible bad or dangerous results of your actions

rash doing something too quickly, without thinking carefully about whether it is sensible or not

 

 

Functions of volition

 

Making a decision

 

  = John: I want to go into business. Ive got no doubt about it.
  = John decided/made up his mind to go into business.
   
  = Peter: Ive thought a lot about what university to apply to. And I know now.
  = John made up his mind about what university to apply to.

 

Patterns

 

John decided resolved determined settled to go into business. on a trip to London. on going to London. that he/his son would go into business.  
John was determined was resolved to go into business.  
John couldnt decide determine settle what to do after graduation. where the house would be built.  
John couldnt decide between two courses of action. between two candidates. between staying at home and leaving for London.  
John made up his mind about it. between two courses of action. to go into business. (about) what to do next.  
John changed his mind about Peter. about it. about coming with us.  
John set his heart/mind on a holiday in Italy. on going to Italy for a holiday.  
John was set on his plans. on going to Africa. against their plans.  
John was resolved/bent on the new job. on accepting the offer.  
John was decided about it.    
John made / took (BrE) / arrived at / came to /reached a decision (about it/to do it).  
John took it into his head to go there. that he was being maltreated.  
John was going to ask Peter for help but thought better of (doing) it.  
John said it answered resolutely/firmly/decisively. in a resolute manner/tone/voice. in a firm manner/tone/voice. in a determined manner/tone/voice. in a decisive manner/tone/voice.  
John gave a resolute/firm/decisive answer.  
                           

 







: 2015-09-04; : 109.

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