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Computer science (CS) spans the range from theory through programming to cutting-edge developmentof computing solutions. Computer science offers a foundation that permits graduates to adapt to new technologies and new ideas. The work of computer scientists falls into three categories: a) designing and building software; b) developing effective ways to solve computing problems, such as storing information in databases, sending data over networks or providing new approaches to security problems; and c) devising new and better ways of using computers and addressing particular challenges in areas such as robotics, computer vision, or digital forensics (although these specializations are not available in all computer science programs). Most computer science programs require some mathematical background.

Let us consider what is involved in a career path in each area.

Career Path 1: Designing and implementing software. This refers to the work of software development which has grown to include aspects of web development, interface design, security issues, mobile computing, and so on. This is the career path that the majority of computer science graduates follow. While a bachelor’s degree is generally sufficient for entry into this kind of career, many software professionals return to school to obtain a terminal master’s degree. Career opportunities occur in a wide variety of settings including large or small software companies, large or small computer services companies, and large organizations of all kinds (industry, government, banking, healthcare, etc.). Degree programs in software engineering also educate students for this career path.

Career Path 2: Devising new ways to use computers. This refers to innovation in the application of computer technology. A career path in this area can involve advanced graduate work, followed by a position in a research university or industrial research and development laboratory; it can also involve entrepreneurial activity.

Career Path 3: Developing effective ways to solve computing problems. This refers to the application or development of computer science theory and knowledge of algorithms to ensure the best possible solutions for computationally intensive problems. As a practical matter, a career path in the development of new computer science theory typically requires graduate work to the Ph.D. level, followed by a position in a research university or an industrial research and development laboratory.

Career Path 4: Planning and managing organizational technology infrastructure. This is the type of work for which the new information technology (IT) programs explicitly aim to educate students.

(based on: http://computingcareers.acm.org)

2. Match the words and word combinations with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. to span the range a) впровадження програмного забезпечення
2. security issues b) кар'єрна стежина
3. implementing software c) питання безпеки
4. devising new and better ways d) передовий розвиток
5. research university e) виключно спрямований
6. an application f) доктор філософії
7. cutting-edge development g)розробка нових і кращих шляхів
8. career path h) складні обчислювальні задачі
9. entrepreneurial [ ] activity i) охоплювати діапазон
10. to obtain a master’s degree/ a bachelor’s degree j)виконувати обчислювальні завдання
11. providing new approaches k) дослідницький університет
12. computationally intensive problems l) щоб отримати ступінь магістра/ бакалавра
13. to solve computing problems m) підприємницька діяльність
14. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) n) забезпечення нових підходів
15. explicitly aim o) застосування
16. advanced graduate work p) стосуватися
17. to refer to q) роботехніка
18. to require r) комп’ютерна експертиза
19. robotics s) направляти певні виклики
20. to address particular challenges t) вимагати
21. digital forensics u) подальша післядипломна робота

3. Match the definition with the word defined? Choose the words from the databank:

Databank:alaboratory, a network, to adapt, digital forensics, robotics, a database, a challenge, computer vision, intensive, software engineering.

1) to adjust (someone or something, esp oneself) to different conditions, a new environment; 2) a systematized collection of data that can be accessed immediately and manipulated by a data-processing system for a specific purpose; 3) a system of computers interconnected by telephone wires or other means in order to share information; 4) a test of one's abilities or resources in a demanding but stimulating undertaking; 5) is a branch of forensic science encompassing the recovery and investigation of material found in digital devices, often in relation to computer crime; 6) the science or study of the technology associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots; 7) the science and technology of machines that see, where see in this case means that the machine is able to extract information from an image that is necessary to solve some task; 8) a profession dedicated to designing, implementing, and modifying software so that it is of higher quality, more affordable, maintainable, and faster to build; 9) possessing or requiring to a high degree; 10) a room or building equipped for scientific experimentation or research.


4. Insert the words into the proper places:

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