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Ways of expressing the attribute.

It can be expressed by:

1. An adjective (the most common way of expressing an attri­bute).

Thisbig girl is very lazy.

I am speaking about thebig girl, not thelittle one.

He seems a verysilent, awkward, bashful lad. (Thackeray)

Meanwhile she was thegayest andmost admired woman. (Thackeray)

2. A pronoun (possessive, defining, demonstrative, interrogative, relative).

His shrewd, steady eyes had lost none of their clear shining. (Buck)

Each of these ladies held fans in their hands, and each, withsometouch of colour,some emphatic feather or brooch, testified to the solemnity of the opportunity. (Galsworthy)

I looked at her — at her, and at none other, fromthat moment. (Collins)

James once went down to see for himselfwhat sort of place this was that they had come from. (Galsworthy)

In that great London,what time had they to be sentimental? (Galsworthy)

It should be kept in mind that possessive pronouns are often not translated into Russian. On the other hand when translating from Rus­sian into English one should often insert possessive pronouns.

He extendedhis hand to me. — Он протянул мне руку. «Пойди вымой руки», — сказала мать. — "Go and washyourhands," said mother.

3. A numeral (cardinal or ordinal).

In his final examinations he wonsix distinctions... (Aldington)

Thesecond generation of Forsytes felt that he (Bosinney) was not greatly to their credit. (Galsworthy)

4. A noun:

(a)In the common case. One of the marked features of the English language is the wide use of nouns in the common case as attributes in pre-position; in Russian nouns are never used as attributes in preposition.

I recognized him as Dougal Todd, thevillage painter and carpen­ter. (Cronin)— Я узнал Дугала Тодда, местногодеревенскогомаляра и плотника.

Не was pleased that the girl seemed impressed because it showedbusiness instinct. (Galsworthy) — Он был дово­лен, что на девушку это произвело впечатление, ибо это свидетельствовало о том, что у нее естькоммерческаяжилка.

Не wore a largestraw hat. — На нем была большаясоломен­ная шляпа.

As seen from the above examples the attributive nouns arerenderedin Russian either by nouns in the genitive case used inpost-position or by adjectives.

(b)In the genitive case. This kind of attribute is generally used in pre-position.

Her father's nerves would never stand the disclosure. (Galswor­thy) — Нервыее отца не выдержат этого известия.

However, an attribute expressed by the preposition of a noun in the genitive case is used in post-position (the so-called Absolute Genitive): this clever jokeof mother's; a bookof my brother's.

How could he go up to Oxford now, among all those chaps, those splendid friendsof Crum's? (Galsworthy)

In this case the noun modified is always used either with the in­definite article or with a demonstrative pronoun. The latter makes it emphatic.

The same construction may be used with possessive pronouns in their absolute form: a friendof mine; that pretty sisterof his.

5. A prepositional phrase.

To think that a manof his abilities would stoop to such a horrible trick as that! (Dreiser)

And the impressionsof six years are not got over in such a space of time. (Thackeray)

Very often in translating English of-phrases into Russian nouns in the genitive case without any preposition are used.

the captainof the ship — капитан корабля

a cupof tea — чашка чая

6. An adverb:

(a)In pre-position.

In Russian an attribute cannot be expressed by an adverb in pre­position. Consequently in translating these sentences into Russian we use adjectives: thethen secretary —тогдашний секретарь.

In the light ofafter events one cannot but sympathize with them. (Fox) — В светепоследующих событий им нельзя не сочувствовать.

(b)In post-position.

A voiceinside said, "Come in." — Голосиз комнаты сказал: «Войдите!»

The roomabove is large and light. — Комнатанаверху боль­шая и светлая.

The manthere is my brother. —Вон тот человек — мой брат. Will it be a stepon or a stepback? — Это будет шагвпередили шагназад?

The above examples show that in Russian an adverb can also be used as an attribute in post-position. However, not every English attributive adverb in post-position can be rendered by an adverb in Russian.

7. Participles 1 and II or a participial phrase.

The participle in the function of an attribute can be used in pre­position and in post-position. In the latter case it is mostly used with accompanying words.

On the opposite side of the road to the site of thedestroyedchurch is a fine avenue of old trees. (Abrahams)

It looks brighter over there. I think it is only apassing shower. (Du Maurier)

I was dazzled by the snowglittering on the tree tops. (Ch. Bronte)

8. A prepositional phrase or a prepositional construction with a gerund.

Sally hated the ideaof borrowing and living on credit. (Pri- chard)

The thoughtof having it copied again and again set him to smiling. (Shaw)

The idea ofits being barbarous to confine wild animals had probably never even occurred to his father for instance... (Galsworthy)

(For ways of translating the gerund see Chapter VIII, The Ger­und.)

9. An infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction. The infinitive as an attribute is always used in post-position.

They must have more companionship, more opportunityto broaden their life. (Dreiser)

All right, go back to your office, you've got workto do. (Heym)

But it was not easy to carry out the resolutionnever to approach her. (Hardy)

This is an English articlefor you to translate into Russian by tomorrow.

10. Quotation groups.

These are generally rendered in Russian by means of the conjunc­tion как будто, точно and a clause which stands in post-position.

I don't like his "don't-talk-to-me-or-l'll-contradict-you" air. — Мне не нравится то, что у него такой вид, как будто он хочет сказать: «Не разговаривайте со мной, а то я буду вам пе­речить».

Не was being the boss again, using the it's-my-money-now-do- as-you're-told voice. (Wilson) — Он теперь снова был хозяином и говорил тоном, в котором слышалось: «Теперь деньги мои, делайте как вам велят».


§ 31. Anapposition is a special kind of attribute which is expressed by a noun (with or without accompanying words) which characterizes or explains the word modified by giving the person or thing another name. There are two kinds of apposition, theclose apposition and thelooseordetached apposition.

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