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The Adverbial Modifier
§ 34. The adverbial modifier is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb. According to their meaning we distinguish the following kinds of adverbial modifiers.
1. The adverbial modifier oftime.
We shall try ittomorrow. (Heym)
While dancing, Cowperwood had occasion to look at Aileen often... (Dreiser)
These preparations happily completed, I bought a house in Covent Garden Market. (Dickens)
After receiving the cheque back, there seemed to him to be something wrong somewhere. (Galsworthy)
2. The adverbial modifier offrequency.
Though they hadoften bothered him he had never bothered them. (London)
3. The adverbial modifier ofplace anddirection.
Gains had spieseverywhere. (Douglas)
Among the hills Martin and Ruth sat side by side. (London)
4. The adverbial modifier ofmanner.
Hendel Hull soobviously adored his wife. (Sanborn)
Their conversations were conductedwith icy formality. (Douglas)
Marcfillus accepted this informationwithout betraying his amazement. (Douglas)
5. The adverbial modifier ofattendant circumstances.
Then the gun rolled into the old town,clattering over the stones. (Heym)
Now I can go to bed at lastwithout dreading tomorrow. (Shaw)
6. The adverbial modifier ofdegree andmeasure.
It israther good. It weighsa pound.
7. The adverbial modifier ofcause.
The men were weary,having run behind the beasts all day. (Buck)
The doctor said operate, it can't do any harm but I have great fear of the knife for my poor boy,his mother having died under it due to negligence. (Greene)
8. The adverbial modifier ofresult (consequence).
She is too fond of the childto leave it.
9. The adverbial modifier ofcondition. (It is very rare both in English in Russian.)
Mrs. Micawber thought thatwith large means her husband would have distinguished himself long ago. (Dickens) She never would have been able to make a success of the din- ing-room,but for the kindness and assistance of the men.
10. The adverbial modifier ofcomparison.
Like all other Forsytes of a certain age they kept carriages of their own. (Galsworthy)
Judice is as whiteas mud. She's as perfectas sin. (Sanborn)
And then his wife's face flushed and contractedas though in pain. (Gaskell)
He sawas if visible in the air before him in illuminated figures the whole sum. (London)
John plays the piano betterthan Mary.
11. The adverbial modifier ofconcession. (It is very rare.)
Notwithstanding the success achieved by Napoleon in the initial stage of the war of 1812 he was finally defeated. Though frightened he carried it off very well. (Cronin)
12. The adverbial modifier ofpurpose.
Ham sometimes walked with usto show us the boats and ships. (Dickens)
They opened the wayfor her to come to him. (Douglas)
They cleared swamp growthfor planting. (Eliot)