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Ways of expressing the adverbial modifier.
It can be expressed by:
1. An adverb.
Rachel turnedinstinctively to prevent a possible intruder from entering. (Bennett)
2. A noun with or without accompanying words.
Next day the morning hours seemed to pass very slowly at Mr. Pellet's. (E. ВгоШё)
They walkedmiles without finding any habitation.
3. A prepositional phrase.
The red dust spread up and out andover everything. (Wells) I walked straightup the lane. (Bennett)
4. A noun, pronoun, adjective, infinitive, participle, or prepositional phrase with a subordinating conjunction.
Mary swims betterthan her sister.
My sister plays tennis betterthan I.
If necessary, she must see Mr. Bridgenorth. (Gaskell)
He shrank back, his arms liftedas though to ward off physical violence. (London)
While waiting for the water to boil, he held his face over the stove. (London)
Sometimes he (Martin),when with her, noted an unusual brightness in her eyes. (London)
5. A participle or a participial phrase.
Having decided to accept his sister's counsel Marcellus was anxious to perform his unpleasant duty. (Douglas)
Turning away, she caught sight of the extra special edition о The Signal. (London)
When questioned, she explained everything very carefully
6. Absolute constructions.
1. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction.
He had wrapped her up with great care,the night being dark and frosty. (Dickens)
Dehn burst in,the terror of the streets written on his face. (Heym)
2. The Nominative Absolute construction.
He stopped and turned about,his eyes brightly proud. (Douglas)
3. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction.
He looked at Mr. Micawber attentively,with his whole face breathing short and quick in every feature. (Dickens)
4. The Prepositional Absolute construction.
He rushed forward,with fury in his looks, and fire in his eye.
5. A prepositional phrase or construction with a gerund.
His father looked upwithout speaking. (Lindsay)
Nellman was arrested by theFBI... for "being a member of the Communist Party". (Daily Worker)
On her going to his house to thank him, he happened to see her through a window. (Dickens)
I left the roomwithout anybody noticing it.
6. An infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction.
They roseto go into the drawing-room. (Galsworthy)
So, on the following evening, we again assembled,to discuss and arrange our plans. (Jerome)
He put the picture on the tablefor George to get a better view of it. (Maugham)