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Take-off




Exercise 2.7.1 Read and translate the text using the word list.

It is 17.22 UTC. Ahead lies 12, 000 ft of asphalt. The Pakistan 747 has climbed out of sight into the sky.

Heathrow Tower:Speedbird 25, cleared take-off, 09 right, wind is 130 degrees at 7 knots.

First Officer R/T: Cleared take-off nine right, Speedbird 25, thank you.

The Captain releases the brakes and advances the throttles to about 1.20 EPR (engine pressure ratio). The EICAS shows the engines spooling up at a uniform rate.

First Officer: Engines stable.

Captain: Setting power.

John presses the take-off /go-around switch on the front of the thrust levers. This causes the auto throttle to move the levers smoothly ahead to the present thrust setting. The engines spool up to take-off thrust, transforming air and jet A-1 fuel into tornadoes of hot exhaust - more than 200,000 pounds of thrust in all – that propels the jet forward. The engines quickly reach the target EPR setting and Harry calls “Power set”.

Speedbird 25 moves down the runway, slowly at first but gaining speed with every foot of passing pavement. John has one hand on the control column, which he has turned slightly to the right to offset the effect of the light crosswind. His other hand rests on the throttles, ready to chop the power if the take-off has to be aborted. He is looking down the runway and using small movements of the rudder pedal to steer the nose wheel and keep the aircraft on the centerline. Harry’s attention is inside the cockpit, ready to call out the critical take-off speeds as the jet accelerates. As well as using his PFD (pilot flight display) for reference, he is cross-checking John’s. This allows him to keep the engine instruments on the upper EICAS within view and will ensure he spots any warning messages that may appear.

First Officer: Eighty knots.

After this point, the take-off will be aborted for only the most serious emergency. To prevent distraction, some of the warnings and cautions are now automatically inhibited until after the aircraft is in the air. The jet is moving faster and faster. The runway lights twinkle in the fading daylight of this winter day.

First Officer: Vee one . The jet is committed to fly.

Passing 165 kts, Harry calls “Rotate”. John smoothly and steadily pulls back on the control column. The nose rises and the jumbo points skyward. While the laws of physics and aerodynamic theory can explain how a jet the size and weight of a 747 is able to leave the ground, each take-off always seems a minor miracle. John’s attention reverts inside the cockpit to the instrumentation in front of him. He follows the guidance of the flight director bars, which direct an initial pitch attitude of 12.5°. The rumble and vibration disappear as the main wheels leave the runway.

Exercise 2.7.2 Answer the questions.

1. What time is it?

2. How long is the departure runway?

3. Is the Pakistan 747 still in sight?

4. What does the Captain do with the throttles?

5. What is the engine pressure ratio?

6. What does the EICAS show?

7. When does the Captain set power?

8. Where is the take-off/ go-around switch located?

9. What does the autothrottle do?

10. What do the engines transform air and jet fuel into?

11. What is the thrust at that moment?

12. Do the engines reach the target EPR slowly?

13. Why does John turn the control column a little to the right?

14. Why does John have the other hand on the throttles?

15. What is he looking at?

16. What for is he using small movements of the rudder pedal?

17. Where is Harry’s attention?

18. What is he ready to do?

19. What is he using for reference?

20. Which instruments is he keeping in view at the moment?

21. Is it easy to abort take-off at a speed of 80 knots?

22. What is being done to prevent destraction?

23. What does “Vee one” mean?

24. What do the runway lights look like during take-off?

25. What is the speed of the jumbo when the nose wheel leaves the ground?

26. How does John pull back on the control column to make the nose of the aircraft rise?

27. What does each take-off seem to be?

28. Where does John’s attention revert to?

29. Whose guidance does he follow?

30. What is the initial pitch attitude?

31. When do the rumble and vibration disappear?

Exercise 2.7.3 Are the following statements true (√) or false (×)? Correct the false ones.

1. It is 17.22 UTC.

2. 15,000 feet of asphalt lies ahead.

3. The Pakistan 747 has climbed out of sight into the clear sky.

4. Heathrow Tower clears Speedbird 25 for take-off and informs the crew that the wind is 180 degrees at 5 knots.

5. The Captain releases the brakes and advances the throttles to about 1.40 engine pressure ratio.

6. The EICAS shows the engines spooling up at a different rate.

7. The first officer reports that the engines are instable.

8. The captain says he is setting power.

9. John presses the take-off /go-around switch on the back of the thrust levers.

10. This causes the auto throttle to move the levers abruptly ahead to the present thrust setting.

11. The engines spool up to take-off thrust, transforming air and jet A-1 fuel into tornadoes of hot exhaust.

12. More than 400,000 pounds of thrust propel the jet forward.

13. The engines slowly reach the target EPR setting.

14. Speedbird 25 moves down the runway.

15. The aircraft moves slowly at first but gaining speed with every foot of passing pavement.

16. John has both hands on the control column.

17. He has turned the control column slightly to the left to offset the effect of the crosswind.

18. He is ready to chop the power if the take-off has to be aborted.

19. The pilot is looking down the runway.

20. Using small movements of the stabilizer pedal he tries to steer the nose wheel and keep the aircraft on the centerline.

21. Harry’s attention is outside the cockpit.

22. He is ready to call out the critical take-off speeds as the jet accelerates.

23. As well as using his pilot flight display for reference, he is cross-checking John’s.

24. This allows him to keep the engine instruments on the lower EICAS within view.

25. It will ensure he spots any warning messages that may appear.

26. The first officer reports that the aircraft’s speed is ninety knots.

27. After this point, the take-off will be aborted for only the most serious emergency.

28. To prevent distraction, some of the warnings and cautions are now automatically displayed until after the aircraft is in the air.

29. The jet is moving faster and faster.

30. The runway lights twinkle in the fading daylight of this autumn day.

31. The first officer says, “Vee one.”

32. The jet is committed to fly.

33. Passing 175 kts, Harry calls “Rotate”.

34. John smoothly and steadily pushes forward the control column.

35. The nose rises and the jumbo points skyward.

36. The laws of physics and aerodynamic theory cannot explain how a jet the size and weight of a 747 is able to leave the ground.

37. Each take-off always seems the greatest miracle.

38. John’s attention reverts inside the cockpit to the instrumentation in front of him.

39. He follows the guidance of the flight director bars, which direct an initial pitch attitude of 14.5°.

40. The rumble and vibration disappear as the nose wheel leaves the runway.

Exercise 2.7.4 Give English equivalents for the following words and word combinations.

Прерывать (взлет); ускорять; подвигаться вперед; грохот; пространственное положение ВС; покрытие; вырубить; незначительный; сбросить мощность двигателей; ускорять; устремленный в небо; быть обреченным на что-либо; результат; степень повышения давления; постепенно; исчезать; стрелка пилотажного командного прибора; управление; цель; подернутый дымкой; мелькать; рычаг; чудо; смещать; пилотский дисплей полета; крен воздушного судна относительно поперечной оси; продвигать вперед; визуальная опора; автомат тяги; вернуться; отрывать переднее колесо при взлете; устанавливать взлетный режим; асфальт; плавно; наматывать; заметить.

Exercise 2.7.5 What do the following abbreviations stand for?

EPR PFD

Exercise 2.7.6 Find in the text synonyms for the following words and expressions.

In front of; misty; free; steady; put forward; wind [waind]; rapidly; fluently; move; make (вызвать, послужить причиной); change; obtain; influence; quicken; discharge; goal; guarantee; permit; notice; happen; devastation; restrain; flash; vanish; return; rattle.

Exercise 2.7.7 Match the word combinations and expressions in column A with those in column B.

A B
1. flight director bar 2. attitude 3. autothrottle 4. chop power 5. engine pressure ratio 6. pilot flight display 7. reference 8. rotate 9. skyward 10. set (take-off) power 11. spool up 12. pitch 13. pitch attitude 14. minor miracle 15. laws of physics 16. aerodynamic theory 17 offset the effect 18. gain speed 19. target EPR setting a. расчетная установка мощн.двигат. b. аэродинамическая теория c. автомат тяги d. угол кабрирования/ пикирования e. пилотский дисплей полета d. набирать скорость g. устремленный в небо h. отрывать перед. колесо при взлете i. визуальная опора j. устанавливать взлетный режим k. стрелка пилотажн. ком. прибора l. набирать (мощность двигателя) m. противостоять влиянию n. маленькое чудо o. сбросить мощность двигателей p. законы физики q. пространственное положение ВС r. степень повышения давления s. крен возд. судна относ. попер. оси

 

Exercise 2.7.8 Fill in the gaps with the words from the text choosing from the ones given in brackets.

1. The Pakistan 747 has climbed out of _____ (vision; view; sight) into the hazy sky.

2. The Captain ______ (sets; releases; pushes) the brakes and _____ (advances; achieves; awaits) the throttles to about 1.20 engine pressure _____ (ration; ratio; rate).

3. The EICAS shows the engines _______ (spooling; spoiling; splitting) up at a uniform rate.

4. John presses the take-off /go-around switch on the front of the thrust _____ (levels; levers; lengths).

5. This _____ (causes; cases; calls) the auto throttle to move the levers smoothly ahead to the present thrust _____ (set; setting; settle).

6. The engines spool up to take-off _______ (thrust; threat; thread).

7. They are _____ (transformed; transformated; transforming) air and jet A-1 fuel into tornadoes of hot _____ (exhaust; exhaustive; exhausted).

8. More than 200,000 pounds of thrust _____ (proper; propose; propel) the jet forward.

9. The engines quickly _____ (respond; revise; reach) the target EPR setting.

10. Speedbird 25 moves down the runway, slowly at first but _______ (reaching; giving; gaining) speed with every foot of _____ (passed; past; passing) pavement.

11. John has turned the control column slightly to the right to offset the _____ (affect; effectiveness; effect) of the light crosswind.

12. He is ready to _____ (chop; chip; chap) the power if the take-off has to be _____ (aborted; abortive; aborting).

13. He is looking _____ (up; down; along) the runway.

14.He is using small ____ (moves; motions; movements) of the rudder pedal to steer the nose wheel and _____ (keep; kept; keeping) the aircraft on the centerline.

15. Harry is ready to call ____ (up; out; off) the _____ (critical; criterion; critic) take-off speeds as the jet _____ (accelerated; accelerating; accelerates).

16. He is using his pilot flight display for ____ (reference; refer; response).

17. This allows him to keep the engine instruments on the (up; upper; upped) EICAS within view.

18. This will ensure that he ____ (spots; spits; spats) any warning messages that may appear.

19. After this point, the take-off will be aborted for only the most serious ____ (urgency; emergency; imagination).

20. To prevent ___ (instruction; construction; destruction), some of the warnings and cautions are now automatically _____ (inhibited; prohibited; initiated) until after the aircraft is in the air.

21. The runway lights _____ (twitter; twinkle; twinge) in the fading daylight of this winter day.

22. The jet is _____ (complied; compelled; committed) to fly.

23. The laws of physics and aerodynamic theory can explain how a jet the size and weight of a 747 is able to ____ (live; left; leave) the ground.

24. Each take-off always seems a _____ (minority; majority; minor) miracle.

25. John’s attention _____ (reverts; reports; responds) inside the cockpit to the instrumentation in front of him.

26. He follows the guidance of the flight _____ (director; directing; directed) bars.

27. The rumble and vibration _____ (appear; approve; disappear) as the main wheels leave the runway.

Exercise 2.7.9 Fill in the gaps with the necessary form of the words given in brackets.

1. The Pakistan 747 has _____ out of sight into the sky. (CLIMB)

2. The Captain ______ the brakes. (RELEASE)

3. The auto throttle moves the levers _____ ahead to the present thrust _____.(SMOOTH + SET)

4. The engines spool up to take-off thrust, _____ air and jet A-1 fuel into tornadoes of hot exhaust. (TRANSFORM)

5. The engines ______ reach the target EPR _____. (QUICK + SET)

6. Speedbird 25 moves down the runway, _____ at first but _____ speed with every foot of _____ + _____. (SLOW + GAIN + PASS + PAVE)

7. The pilot is ready to chop the power if the take-off has to be _____. (ABORT)

8. He is ______ down the runway. (LOOK)

9. Harry’s _____ is inside the cockpit. (ATTENTIVE)

10. He is _____ his pilot flight display for ______. (USE + REFER)

11. This will _____ he spots any _____ messages. (SURE + WARN)

12. The take-off will be _____ for only the most serious emergency. (ABORT)

13. To prevent _____, some of the warnings and cautions are now _____ + ______ until after the aircraft is in the air. (DISTRACT + AUTOMATE + INHIBIT)

14. The jet is _____ faster and faster. (MOVE)

15. The runway lights twinkle in the _____ daylight of this winter day. (FADE)

16. The jet is _____ to fly. (COMMIT)

17. _____ 165 kts, Harry calls “Rotate”. (PASS)

17. John ______ and _____ pulls back on the control column. (SMOOTH + STEADY)

18. John’s _____ reverts inside the cockpit. (ATTENTIVE)

19. He follows the _____ of the flight ______ bars. (GUIDE + DIRECT)

20. They direct an _____ pitch attitude of 12.5°. (INITIATE)

21. The rumble and _____ disappear as the main wheels leave the runway. (VIBRATE)

Exercise 2.7.10 In the list below the box find a definition for the given words.

Centreline Rotate Cockpit Throttle Exhaust Knot V1 Emergency Accelerate Crosswind Engine Instruments Pavement

 

1. to raise the nose wheel off the runway by pulling the control column back during take-off

2. control levers mounted on the pedestal in the cockpit by means of which the pilot may control the supply of fuel to the engines and therefore the thrust generated by the engines

3. decision speed = the speed before which an engine failure or other serious failure must have been recognized and the decision taken to either stop or continue the take-off

4. hot used gasses discharged by the engine

5. a speed of one nautical mile per hour

6. wind blowing from the side, not coinciding with the path of flight or direction of the runway

7. a line down the middle of the runway which may be marked with paint or lights

8. a control area or flight deck from which the pilots operate the aircraft

9. to increase speed or cause to go faster

10. the set of gauges which provide the pilots with all the information they need to monitor and control the power output and performance of the engines

11. a crisis relating to the operation of the aircraft which may place it or its passengers and crew in distress

12. the hard surface usually of concrete or tarmac, of runways, taxiways, ramps and other maneuvering areas of airports

Exercise 2.7.11 Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Спидберд 25 занял исполнительный старт и находится на ВПП 09 правой.

2. Перед самолетом лежат 12 тысяч футов асфальта.

3. Пакистанский Боинг 747 набрал высоту и исчез из поля зрения в небе, подернутом дымкой.

4. Диспетчер дает Спидберду разрешение на взлет и информирует его о силе и направлении ветра.

5. Командир воздушного судна подтверждает разрешение диспетчера и благодарит его.

6. Пилот отпускает тормоза и отжимает дроссели до примерно 1,20 степени повышения давления.

7. Система ЭЙКАС показывает, что двигатели набирают обороты с одинаковой скоростью.

8. Второй пилот докладывает, что двигатели работают стабильно.

9. Командир отвечает, что он устанавливает взлетную мощность.

10. Джон нажимает на переключатель взлета/ ухода на второй круг, который находится перед рычагами тяги.

11. Это ведет к тому, что автомат тяги передвигает рычаги плавно вперед на установленные показатели мощности.

12. Двигатели набирают обороты до взлетной тяги, превращая воздух и реактивное топливо А-1 в вихри горячих отработанных газов.

13. Это обеспечивает в целом более 200 тысяч фунтов тяги, которые двигают реактивный самолет вперед.

14. Двигатели быстро достигают запланированной мощности, и Гарри сообщает об этом.

15. Спидберд движется по ВПП, сначала медленно, потом набирая скорость с каждым футом проносящегося под колесами покрытия.

16. Джон держит одну руку на штурвале, который он слегка разворачивает вправо, чтобы противодействовать воздействию небольшого бокового ветра.

17. Другая его рука лежит на дросселях, готовая резко сбросить мощность, если взлет нужно будет прервать.

18. Он смотрит на ВПП впереди и небольшими движениями педали руля направления управляет носовым колесом и удерживает самолет по центру полосы.

19. Внимание Гарри сосредоточено внутри кабины.

20. Он готов оглашать критические для взлета скорости по мере ускорения самолета.

21. Наряду с использованием своего пилотского полетного дисплея он сверяется с дисплеем Джона для того, чтобы иметь еще одну визуальную опору.

22. Это позволяет ему держать в поле зрения приборы, отражающие работу двигателей на верхнем дисплее системы ЭЙКАС.

23. Это обеспечит то, что он заметит любые предупреждающие сигналы в случае их появления.

24. Второй пилот сообщает, что скорость воздушного судна достигла 80 узлов.

25. После этого момента взлет будет прерван только в случае наиболее серьезной чрезвычайной ситуации.

26. Чтобы не отвлекать пилотов, некоторые из предупреждений и предостережений автоматически подавляются до тех пор, пока самолет не будет в воздухе.

27. Самолет движется быстрее и быстрее, и второй пилот сообщает, что воздушное судно набрало скорость принятия решения V1

28. Теперь самолет просто обречен на полет.

29. Огни ВПП мелькают в гаснущем свете зимнего дня.

30. Проходя через точку 165 узлов, Гарри говорит: “Отрывай.”

31. Джон плавно и равномерно тянет на себя штурвал.

32. Нос поднимается, и аэробус устремляется в небо.

33. Законами физики и теорией аэродинамики можно объяснить, как реактивный самолет с размерами и весом Боинга 747 способен покинуть землю, но каждый взлет все равно кажется маленьким чудом.

34. Внимание Джона возвращается в кабину к приборам перед ним.

35. Он следит за стрелками пилотажного командного прибора, которые показывают первоначальный угол кабрирования 12,5°.

36. Грохот и вибрация исчезают, как только основные колеса воздушного судна покидают ВПП.

Exercise 2.7.12 Make up your own sentences using the following words and word combinations.

Releases the brakes; stable; spool up; gain speed; chop the power; warning messages; distraction; disappear.

Exercise 2.7.13 Retell the text.


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