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The Lasting Principles
In 1829 Sir Richard Mayne, one of the founders of Scotland Yard, wrote: "The primary object of an efficient police is the
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prevention of crime and detection and punishment of offenders if crime is committed To these ends all the efforts of police must Ъе directed. The protection of life and property, the preservation of public tranquillity, and the absence of crime, will alone prove whether those efforts have been successful and whether the objects for which the police were appointed have been attained" In attaining these objects, much depends on the approval and co-operation of the public, and these have always been determined by the degree of esteem and respect in which the police are held. Therefore, every member of the Force must remember that it is his duty to protect and help members of the public, no less than to bring offenders to justice. Consequently, while prompt to prevent crime and arrest criminals, he must look on himself as the servant and guardian of the general public and treat all law-abiding citizens, irrespective of their race, colour, creed or social position, with unfailing patience and courtesy.
, By the use of tact and good humour the public can normally be induced to comply with directions and thus the necessity for using force is avoided. If, however, persuasion, advice or warning is found to be ineffective, a resort to force may become necessary, as it is imperative that a police officer being required to take action shall act with the firmness necessary to render it effective.
TASK 1, Answer the following questions:
L What are the objects of the police work according to Sir Richard Mayne?
2. How should the co-operation between the police and the public be achieved?
3. Why is the principle of police-public co-operation so important?
TASK 2. Read the text and translate the expressions given in bold type in writing:
The police are not above the law and must act within it. A police officer is an agent of the law of the land and may be sued or prosecuted for any wrongful act committed in the performance of police duties. Officers are also subject to a disciplinary code designed to deal with abuse of police powers and maintain public
Chapter III. Law Enforcement____________________ ____________________________ gg
confidence in police impartiality. If found guilty of breaching the code, an officer can be dismissed from the force.
Members of the public have the right to make complaints against police officers if they feel that they have been treated unfairly or improperly. In England and Wales the investigation and resolution of complaints is scrutinised by the independent Police Complaints Authority. The Authority must supervise any case involving death or serious injury and has discretion to supervise in any other case. In addition, the Authority reviews chief constables' proposals on whether disciplinary charges should be brought against an officer who has been the subject of a complaint. If the chief constable does not recommend formal disciplinary charges, the Authority may, if it disagrees with the decision, recommend and, if necessary» direct that charges be brought.
The Government aims to ensure that the quality of service provided by police forces in Britain inspires public confidence, and that the police have the active support and involvement of the communities which they serve. The police service is taking effective action to improve performance and standards. Ail forces in England and Wales have to consult with the communities they serve and develop policing policies to meet community demands. They have to be more open and explicit about their operations and the standards of service that they offer.
Virtually all forces have liaison departments designed to develop closer contact between the force and the community. These departments consist of representatives from the police, local councillors and community groups.
Particular efforts are made to develop relations with young people through greater contact with schools and their pupiis,
The Government has repeatedly stated its commitment to improve relations between the police and ethnic minorities. Central guidance recommends that all police officers should receive a thorough training in community and race relations issues. Home Office and police initiatives are designed to tackle racially motivated crime and to ensure that the issue is seen as a priority by the police. Discriminatory behaviour by police officers, either to other officers or to members of the public, is an offence under the Police Discipline Code, All police forces recognise the need to recruit women and members of the ethnic minorities in order to ensure that the police represent the commurtity. Every force has an equal opportunities policy,
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TASK 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What disciplinary measures are police officers subject to?
2. What authorities supervise police conduct?
3. What helps improve police-public co-operation?
4. What is a liaison department?
5. How are race related issues tackled by the police?
TASK 4. Complete the following text with the words and expressions from the box:
—-------------------- ■—"—"----------------- —.......... " ~ N
misconduct; opinion polls; justice; sympathy; mob violence; failures; complaints; terrorist offence
Most people have a positive attitude to the policeT and
_________________________ have indicated that there is much public
_______________ with men and women who have to deal with
______________________ . There is a formal system through which
___________ of police behaviour may be investigated, but in the
late 1990s it was found that these procedures had not prevented
some serious____________________________ in the'system of administering
i Some Irish people had been convicted of a_____________________________
___________ on the basis of confessions which had been improperly
extracted from them, and the truth was discovered only after they had spent several years in prison. There were other cases too in which there were grounds for suspecting that the police had persuaded people to confess to crimes which they had not committed. Some other inquiries revealed more cases of ______________ by the police.
TASK 5, Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the box;
from; to; with; to; of
1, What is your attitude___________________________ the problem of crime
2, All the sympathies of the jury were _________ the defendant
3. Finally the criminal was convicted________________________ a violent assault
4. The detective took pains to extract information__________________________________
Chapter IIL Law Enforcement 91
5, After a long questioning the suspect had to confess
TASK 6- Read the following newspaper article and point out the public attitude towards the police:
The PC with the Golden Handcuffs
The hiding places are running out for crooks on PC Peter Hilton's patch* He has made an incredible 287 arrests in 11 months. In a crime-bustling blitz in Eccles, Salford, villains have been pinched for offences including burglary, car theft, possession of drugs, assault and drink-driving,
Now PC Hilton has been honoured for his devotion to public service with a commendation tram Greater Manchester Chief Constable David Wilmot. Mr. Willmot said it was unusual for an officer to receive an award for the number of arrests he had made rather than an individual act.
PC Hilton said modestly: "I've just been lucky IVe been in the right place at the right time. Teamwork with colleagues has also played a big part. Landing the crime-ridden Eccles beat has also helped. "
The constable said that after ten years in the force he "tended to know the short cuts crooks take and also what to look for". He added: "It's all about knowing their
TASK 7. Translate the foltoimng words and expressions from the article above;
2. crime-bustling blitz
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4. PC Peter Hilton's patch
5. Pete Lockup
6. teamwork with colleagues
7. to land the crime-ridden beat
8. to pinch
9. to receive a citation of merit
10. to take short cuts
TASK 8. Find in the article above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
2. произвести арест
4. угон автомобиля
5. хранение наркотиков
7. вождение в нетрезвом состоянии
8. быть представленным к награде
9. разоружить преступника
TASK 9, Answer the following questions:
1. What offences does Pete Hilton deal with?
2. What is unusual about his reward?
3. What helps Pete in his work?
TASK 10, Read the following newspaper article and point out the public attitude towards the police:
£220,000 for Victim of PoliceAssault
A hairdresser won £220,000 damages yesterday after a jury found that he was assaulted by police and wrongfully arrested. This happened after counsel for Din Zung, 32, urged the jury to send a clear message that the public would no longer stand for "lying, bullying, racism and perjury'1 by the Metropolitan Police.-
Central London County Court was told that police went to Mr. Zung's
COUNSEL for (the party) — here same as BARRISTER (UK) — a lawyer who has the right to plead as an advocate in a superior court
home over a dispute involving a leaking roof. Mr. Zung was arrested after refusing to allow officers in without a warrant. Akmal Khan, his
Chapter Ш. Law Enforcement
solicitor, said his client's arms were twisted behind his back and he was
SOLICITOR(UK) — a qualified lawyer who advises clients, represents them in the lower courts and prepares cases for barristers to try in higher courts
handcuffed. "They punched and kicked him in .the van and he was kicked in the kidneys'1- Another policeman used his back as a footstool and the driver turned round and insulted him verbally saying he had got no more than he deserved. The charge officer told him, 'Tve never arrested a Chink before." When he was released at 11 p.m. that night they threw him into the street in just jeans and flip-flops. "He had to walk two miles home,'1 Mr. Khan said. .
When Mr- Zung arrived home, the front door was open and his stereo and other property had been stolen. Doctors found extensive bruising to his back and kidneys and he was passing blood.
TASK 11. Translate ike following article above:
2. charge officer
3. false imprisonment
4. malicious prosecution
6. to be wrongfully arrested
7. to appeal against the verdict
8. to make a complaint
9. to reject a complaint
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10. to steal property
11. to take an action against smb.
12. to win damages
TASK 12. Find in the article above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
2. ордер на арест
3. телесные повреждения
4. надеть наручники
5. наносить словесные оскорбления
6. предъявлять иск
TASK 13. Answer the following questions;
1. What did Mr.Zung's case against Metropolitan Police consist of?
2. What were the circumstances of Mr. Zung's arrest?
3- How did the Police Authority react to Mr. Zung's formal complaint?
4. What were Mr. Zung's further actions?
5. What were the formal grounds for filing the case?
6. Why was the amount of the award so important for Mr. Zung's counsel?
7. What actions will be taken against the police officers involved?