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TEXT II. The History and Theory of Management
To understand management today, you must look at its history. The formal academic discipline of management is relatively new, and it has expanded rapidly since being introduced in higher education in the 1920s. Management theories and schools of thought represent differing viewpoints and strategies for managing people, making decisions, and solving problems.
People ignorant of the past are destined to repeat it. Knowing what has gone before allows us to avoid mistakes and capitalize on successes.
A theory is an explanation that helps organize information and knowledge. A theory gives us reasons for doing things one way and not another. A manager who believes that mathematical formulas will help to determine a course of action will use them. The manager who believes that a solution lies in finding the right person with applicable experience will seek such a person. By knowing both theory and history, managers in every field can avoid past mistakes and forecast.
Management began when early humans banded into clans and tribes. Community survival depended upon hunting and gathering, devising shelter, and defending against marauders. People soon found that some members were better at some tasks than others. They learned also that by focusing on one function — by specializing — individuals could improve their performance. The groups that planned, organized, and controlled job assignments and other factors were the groups that thrived.
The development of agriculture allowed humankind to turn from life in small bands to life in large permanent settlements. Institutions relating to religion, commerce, and government appeared. Special groups appeared: farmers grew the food, craftsmen made goods that merchants traded, soldiers attacked neighboring settlements and defended against them, and shamans and priests led different ceremonies. Coordinating all these activities was the job of the administrators.
Graphic records - Babylonian clay tablets, Egyptian tomb paintings, the Bible, then, the stone circles at Stonehendge, massive pyramids at Giza and the 1,500-mile Great Wall of China—vividly tell us how early civilizations managed. All these examples required a high order of planning, organizing, and controlling.
Text: “The history and theory of Management.”
I. General understanding of the text:
1. Management was firstly introduced in higher education:
a) in 1920-s; b) in 1880-s; c) 1950-s;
2. What does the notion of theory mean?
a) the volume of scientific researches; b) an explanation that helps to organize
information and knowledge; c) an experience collected by humankind;
3. Finish the following sentence correctly.
Management began when …
a) … the first Celtic tribes landed the British Islands;
b)… the early humans banded into clans and tribes;
c)… the humankind faced the problems of economic division;
4. What kinds of institutions do you know? Give some examples from the text.
5. Can you enumerate the facts from the world history which show the development of economics as a science?
II. Answer the questions to the text:
Is it possible to understand management today without looking at its history?
When was the formal academic discipline of management introduced in higher education?
What do management theories and schools of thought represent for managing people?
How can a manager avoid mistakes and capitalize on success?
Does a theory help to organize information and knowledge?
Do managers use mathematical formulas in order to determine a course of action?
Is it important for a manager to find the right person with applicable experience?
When did begin management ?
What did community depend upon in ancient centuries?
Why did the ancient groups thrive?
What did allow humankind to turn from life in small bands to life in large permanent settlements?
What special groups do you know?
What was the job of administrator ?
What are the examples of early management?
What are the basic features of management?
III. Which of the following statements are true/false:
To understand management today you mustn’t look at its history.
A theory is not an explanation that helps to organize information and knowledge.
Mathematical formulas help managers to determine a course of actions.
Managers can’t aroid mistakes by knowing both theory and history.
People learned that by specializing – individuals could improve their performance.
Coordinating activities of all special groups was not the job of the administrators.
There are many examples which can vividly tell us how early civilizations managed.
IV. Give definition to the following:
a) a theory; b) applicable experience; c) forecast; d) administrator
V. Find from the text the equivalents of the following word expressions:
oфициальная академическая дисциплина; относительно (сравнительно новый); теории менеджментa и школы научнoй мысли; точка зрения; принятие решений; решение проблем; невежественный; избегать ошибок; добиваться успехов; подходящий (нужный) человек; человечество; выживание общества; племя (клан); процветать; соседние поселения; священник; управляющий (администратор), Египетские надгробные рисунки, массивные пирамиды;
VI. Try to give your own vision of the following:
“A glimpse of phenomenon of management through history”;
“The differences between such notions as «leadership» and «management»;
“Manager” and “administrator” – make a comparison between them.