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Exercise 1. Translate the following, paying attention to the meanings of the verb to MAKE. How does the context influence the choice of a variant?
1. You’re making a big mistake, Mrs. Grey. (B.P.)
2. I always make a cup of tea last thing. She drinks it in bed… (K.M.)
3. It made me feel worse than ever. (K.M.)
4. They were made for each other. (O.R.D.)
5. "I'm not going to make any speech," the Boss said. (R.P.W.)
6. Clutterbuck's father makes all the beer round here. (E.W.)
7. "And flags, Diana. There should be flags left over from last time."
"I made them into dusters," said Dingy ... (E.W.)
8. Presently, the door opened again, and two more boys looked in. They stood and giggled for a time and then made off. (E.W.)
9. "Me, a butler," said Philbrick," made to put up tents like a blinking Arab." "Well, it's a change," said Paul."It's a change for me to be a butler," said Philbrick."I wasn't made to be anyone's servant." (E.W.)
10. As if to make their appeal the more imperative, the following appeared in one of the papers the very next day ... (M.T.)
11. The clerk makes for the door, whistling the latest popular love ballad. (B.Sh.)
Exercise 2. Translate the following, paying attention to the meanings of the verbs to GET, to WANT. How does the context influence the choice of a variant?
1. You can always get money. (B.P.)
2. How did you get into my apartment? (R.L.)
3. "Is it quite easy to get another job after – after you've been in the soup?" asked Paul. Not at first, it isn't, but there're ways". (E.W.)
4. "So he sat down there and wrote me a letter of recommendation... I've got it still." (E.W.)
5. By this time anonymous letters were getting to be an important part of my mail matter. (M.T.)
6. ."I've got to help the gardeners..." (E.W.)
7. All this was a great deal easier than Paul had expected; it didn't seem so very hard to get on with the boys, after all. (E.W.)
8. "Florence, will you get on to the Clutterbucks on the telephone and ask them to come over..." (E.W.)
9. [Mary doesn’t feel well in the morning. Her husband is trying to comfort her] “I’ll get you something…Stay down”. “I can’t. I’ve got to get the children to school”… After a moment she said, “Ethan, I don’t think I can get up. I feel too bad”. (J.S.)
Exercise 3. Translate the following, paying attention to the underlined words. How does the context influence the choice of a variant?
1. The river is getting low and will soon dry up. (L.D.)
2. They were still talking in low voices. (J.F.)
3. The coal’s getting low, we must order some more. (L.D.)
4. You’ve changed such a lot since I last saw you. (L.D.)
5. He [David] was glad he had finally decided to dress up a little - the jeans suit, a shirt and scarf - when he went downstairs ...He [the old painter] too had changed: a pale summer coat, a white shirt, a purple bow tie. (J.F.)
6. I somehow felt that I had one prominent advantage over these gentlemen and that was - good character. (M.T.)
7. ... what sort of characters Messrs. Woodford and Hoffman
8. are ... (M.T.)
9. A salary of four pounds a week would not, he was conscious, remake his fortunes ... (J.G.)
10. He walked on, and became conscious that he had passed a face he knew. (J.G.)
11. Jack held out his hands for the conch and stood up, holding the delicate thing carefully in his sooty hands. (W.G.)
12. "... I couldn't stand him, personally..." (J.F.)
Exercise 4. Give Russian equivalents for the following proper names. Explain your choice.
King Charles I Charles Dickens
King George III George Osborne
King James I James Watt
Queen Mary Mary Barton
Queen Elisabeth Elisabeth Gaskell
St Paul's Cathedral Paul Dombey
Exercise 5. Transcribe and transliterate the following names. Which of the variants is accepted in Russian?
Evelyn Waugh, Somerset Maugham, Bernard Shaw, John Galsworthy, George Byron, William Thackeray.
Exercise 6. Give equivalents for the following geographical names. What means did you use to render them into Russian? London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Connecticut, Kentucky, Hollywood, Hereford, Hertford, Liverpool, the Mersey, New York, New England, Great Slave Lake, Great Bear Lake, Cape of Good Hope, the Rocky Mts, the Lake District
Exercise 7. Translate, paying attention to elements having no equivalents in Russian. By what means do you render them?
1. AUGUSTUS. What! Must you go?
THE LADY. You are so busy.
AUGUSTUS. Yes: but not before lunch., you know. I
never can do much before lunch. And I'm no good at all
in the afternoon. From five to six is my real working
2. “I’m going to build a cottage for myself up at Red Hill…I might even stay there part time in the winter and commute to work. ” “That’s a long commute,” Dan observed doubtfully. (B.P.)
3. Then Henry suddenly asked if we'd like to stay to lunch. (J.F.)
4. I am now more than glad that I did not pass into the grammar school five years ago, although it was a disappointment at the time. (M.S.)
5. He was one of those boys who thinks he knows it all. Public school and all that ... (J.F.)
6. ... starlets were especially attracted to him because of his seriousness. (M.S.)
7. ... it's out of the question to shoot an old Harrovian.. (E.W.)
8. I got a pardon straight from the White House. (R.Ch.)
9. After this, this journal customarily spoke of me as "Twain, the Montana Thief." (M.T.)
10. ... the flight was delayed for half an hour. There was fog at Heathrow. (J.F.)
11. Philbrick, evidently regarding himself as one of the guests, was engaged in a heated discussion on greyhound racing with Sam Clutterbuck. (E.W.)
12. "In there. That’s the Common Room." (E.W.)
13. Lord Augustus Highcastle ... is comfortably seated at a writing-table with his heels on it, reading The Morning Post. (B.Sh.)
14. One August bank holiday in the late nineties they travelled fifty miles to compete in a town where prizes of solid cash were to be given ... (A.C.)
Exercise 8. Analyze the semantic structure of the given attributive phrases. Translate the sentences.
1. Yet that stern-eyed woman had been so sure. (B.P.)
2. I'm a metallurgical chemist turned civil engineer. (B.Sh.)
3. ... he will keep the telephone numbers straight ...(R.P.W.)
4. "In other words they're Medical Students, I suppose?" said Mr Pickwick. (Ch.D.)
5. "The paper publishes my endorsement of Callahan for the Senate nomination. ..." (R.P.W.)
6. A slight weak woman in a pretty muslin print gown (her best) (B.Sh.)
7. She gave me a sharp sidelong look from her furtive eyes. (R.Ch.)
8. Annabel got her good start. (M.S.)
9. ... the men who lived on the first floor usually had first grab at the books ... (J.D.S.)
10. Paul sat down disconsolately on the straight chair.(E.W.)
11. He stood at the end of a long room with his back to a rococo marble chimneypiece. (E.W.)
12. "Boys," he [Dr Fagan] said, "I have some announcements to make. The Fagan cross-country running challenge cup will not be competed for this year on account of the floods." (E.W.)
13. He was seated on a folding wooden chair at a small, messy-looking writing table, with a paper-back overseas novel open before him ... (J.D.S.)
14. DOYLE. Man alive, don't you know that all this ... more-power-to-your-elbow business is got up in England, to fool you ... (B.Sh.)
15. Clay left his feet where they were [on his friend's bed] for a few don't-tell-me-where-to-put-my-feet seconds., then swung them to the floor and sat up. (J.D.S.)
Exercise 9.What is the nature of the phraseological units in the sentences below? Translate the sentences.
1. We have taken all the precautions we can against the painting being stolen. (L.D.)
2. We must take steps to help the families of those who were hurt. (L.D.)
3. The new truck meets our needs. (L.A.D.)
4. You only want to sell the land… That’s the long and short of it, Ian. (B.P.)
5. "Hello, Prendy, ... How are things with you?"(E.W.)
6. I told her that I'd never written a story for anybody, but that it seemed like exactly the right time to get down to it. (J.D.S.)
7. She let go Charlie's sleeve. (J.D.S.)
8. "Dear me, you seem to think about killing a good deal." "I do. It's my mission, you see." (E.W.)
9. "Old boy," said Grimes, "you're in love." "Nonsense”.
“A sweet despair?" ...
"Nothing of the sort”. (E.W.)
10. This new book will be of interest to policemen and prison officers; and, for that matter, to anyone who has to deal with criminals. (L.D.)
Exercise 10. Define the nature of the following phraseological units. Translate them
a) preserving the imagery of the original
1. I wash my hands of this job. (B.Sh.)
2. To kill time before the train left, we went to a movie. (W.Foster-Koonin)
3. My uncle Henry ... was on these occasions in the habit of saying that the devil could always quote scripture to his purpose… (W.S.M.)
4. ... I don't care what you say about my race, creed, or religion, ... but don't tell me I'm not sensitive to beauty. That's my Achilles' heel, and don't you forget it. (J.D.S.)
5. "Money, John," said Mr Pecksniff, "is the root of all evil." (Ch.D.)
6. One swallow does not make a spring.
7. to shed crocodile tears.
b) changing the imagery of the original partially
1. That’s past. There’s no use looking back. It’s water over the dam. (B.P.)
2. Well, you leave and learn, don’t you. (B.P.)
3. Others will say ... that you have lied and fawned and wormed yourself through dirty ways into my favour. (Ch.D.)
4. Old friends and old wine are the best.
5. a wolf in sheep's clothing.
6. as like as two peas.
7. dumb as an oyster.
c) changing the imagery of the original completely
1. “Listen, Clive,” she said, “you’re making a mounting out of a molehill.” (B.P.)
2. As you make your bed, so you must lie on it.
3. He would not set the Thames on fire.
4. Queen Ann is dead.
5. Never cackle till your egg is laid.
6. One fire drives out the other.
7. to make a mountain out of a molehill
8. have all one's eggs in one basket
9. like a cat on hot bricks
10. early to bed and early to rise
d) leaving the imagery out of the translation
1. He had a sweet tooth that, because he was in fine shape, he could afford to indulge. (B.P.)
2. Mrs. Grey, I have no crystal ball. (B.P.)
3. She wanted to talk my head off about it, but I wouldn’t let her. (B.P.)
4. ["You don’t want it to come into Court?" "No, though I suppose it might be rather fun.” [Mr Settlewhite smiled again.] "That entirely depends on how many skeletons you have in your cupboard." (J.G.)
5. PROTEUS. How did you get on with the King?
6. BOANERGES. Right as rain, Joe. (B.Sh.)
7. .to have too many irons in the fire.
8. to have other fish to fry.
9. to make fish of one and flesh of another.
10. Many happy returns of the day!
11. the three R's
Exercise 11. Define the nature of the phraseological units in the sentences below. Translate the sentences. What means do you employ?
1. "Now your predecessor was a thoroughly agreeable young man ... But he used to wake up my daughters coming on his motor bicycle at all hours of the night. He used to borrow money from the boys too, ... and the parents objected. I had to get rid of him. (E.W.)
2. "You have never done a single thing in all your life to be ashamed of - not one. Look at the newspapers... and comprehend what sort of characters Messrs Woodford and Hoffman are and then see if you are willing to lower yourself to their level and enter a public canvass with them." (M.T.)
3. And yet I can lay my hand on the Book and say that I never slandered Governor Hoffman's grandfather. (M.T.)
4. He's been looking awfully down in the mouth lately. (E.W.)
5. "Why are you so reluctant to reveal sources?" The question visibly pleased the old man; as if David had fallen into a trap. (J.F.)
6. So one moment you turn up your nose at a heart of gold. (J.F.)
7. The discussion was resumed in Welsh, but it was clear that the stationmaster was slowly giving way. (E.W.)
8. I don't know how to give up. That's my trouble. I always have to stick things out to the bitter end. (J.F.)
9. I went back to town and left the candidate to his own devices. (R.P.W.)
10. It is a very ill wind that blows nobody any good. (Ch.D.)
11. "You gave up college..." "It was totally against my nature. You've no idea. Trying to prove I wasn't what I am. And anyway, it was only out of the frying pan. I'm even worse now than I was before." (J.F.)
12. Happily enough, it did not rain next day, and after morning school everybody was dressed up to the nines. (E.W.)
13. "He lived for his art, he said. He just moved into a bigger house and went on writing away fifteen to the dozen." (E.W.)
14. "I'm engaged to be married to Flossie ... We haven't told the old boy [the girl's father] yet. I'm waiting till I land in the soup again. Then I shall play that as my last card." (E.W.)
15. "You see Philbrick is really sir Solomon Philbrick, the shipowner."
"The novelist, you mean," said Grimes.
"The retired burglar," said Paul.
The three masters looked at each other.
"Old boys, it seems to me someone's been pulling our legs." (E.W.)
16. Mr Philbrick, senior, ... had two kids: Philbrick and a daughter called Gracie. From the start Philbrick was the apple of the old chap's eye, while he couldn't stick Miss Gracie at any price. (E.W.)
Exercise 12.Translate the following, employing concretization of the underlined elements.
1. In a corner were some golf clubs, a walking stick, an umbrella, and two miniature rifles. Over the chimneypiece was a green baize notice-board covered with lists; there was a typewriter on the table. In a bookcase were a number of very old textbooks and some new exercise-books. There were also a bicycle pump, two armchairs, a straight chair, half a bottle of invalid port, a boxing glove, a bowler hat, yesterday's "Daily News" and a packet of pipe-cleaners. (E.W.)
2. Do you know, I’ve never been in a boat before in all my life. (K.G.)
3. Let this be a lesson to you. (B.P.)
4. Sally was extremely uncomfortable. (B.P.)
5. ... an opera singer tells of the persecution she currently endures at the hands of the tenor's wife ...(M.S.)
6. The baby, Carl, was the only reality of her life.(M.S.)
7. I'm going to Ireland. (B.Sh.)
8. She took a drag of the coffee and then a deep drag of the cigarette. (R.P.W.)
9. I’m a photographer. I do celebrities and authors for book jackets, stuff like this. (B.P.)
10. Sighing, Dan took the phone. (B.P.)
11. I want to get married.(P.G.W.)
Exercise 13. Translate the sentences employing generalization.
1. When they had gone, she was left with a well-remembered dread from her school and college years. Had she passed the finals? (B.P.)
2. He wants his dinner. (B.P.)
3. The Boss was already sitting in the front by the driver's seat when I got to the Cadillac. (R.P.W.)
4. Jack sat up and stretched out his legs. (W.G.)
5. Three long years had passed over my head since I had tasted ale, beer, wine, or liquor of any kind. (M.T.)
6. Paul did not have to travel alone. Potts was at Croydon, enveloped in an ulster and carrying in his hand a little attaché case (E.W.)
7. ... a waiter advanced staggering under the weight of an ice-pail from which emerged a Jeroboam of champagne.(E.W.)
8. Close to the window ... James..., like the bulky Swithin, over six feet in height, but lean, - brooded over the scene with his permanent stoop. (J.G.)
9. But Christmas with no children about - he still remembered the holly and snapdragons of Park Lane in his own childhood - the family parties; ... (J.G.)
10. "What'll you have now - cheese?" "Thank you, sir; I've had too much already, but I won't say 'No'" "Two Stiltons," said Michael. (J.G.)
Exercise 14. Translate the following sentences employing semantic development.
1. “Does it make any difference?” “It always makes a difference”. (I.Sh.)
2. “Daddy and I are going out to dinner. It’s Uncle Oliver’s birthday”. “You is always going out”. “No, honey. We haven’t been out all week”. (B.P.)
3. That’s your opinion, not mine. (B.P.)
4. “Has Tina told you anything?” “Not directly, in so many words” .(B.P.)
5. Dan, listen - you’d like to stop progress, but it can’t be
done. Set your mind on the twenty-first century. ” Gloom
settled on Dan’s face. “My mind’s already on it. (B.P.)”
6. "Are your shoes all right.? The dew's so heavy now." (J.F.)
7. Between the towns the roads were comparatively empty, he was making ample time. (J.F.)
8. He searched for writing paper, but there wasn't any in the room, it wasn't that kind of hotel, an endless one-nighter. (J.F.)
9. Off the screen Annabel Christopher looked a puny little thing. (M.S.)
10. "Oh, dear, oh, dear. I can see that things are going to be very difficult." (E.W.)
11. Then a second later a little bald-headed fellow, wearing a white coat which ought to have been in the week's wash came plunging through the crowd ... (R.P.W.)
12. What did she want? (B.P.)
13. The telephone rang. “Answer it. I’m not home.” (B.P.)
14. What makes you think that? (B.P.)
15. His luck was with him. (B.P.)
16. “Ah, don’t be stupid.” “Men always like to think women are
17. I suppose the funeral will be a big event. (B.P.)
18. You see he’s a new person, don’t you? (B.P.)
19. Clive made no comments. (B.P.)
20. We don’t like to intrude on a day like this, Mrs. Grey. (B.P.)
21. ... the trees gave way to sunlight and a grassy orchard…(J.F.)
22. He throws it [the bullet] on the table; the noise it makes
testifies to its weight. (B.Sh.)
23. The tide was low and there was a strip of weedstrewn beach
that was almost as firm as a road." (W.G.)
Exercise 15. Employ antonymic translation.
1. I don’t suppose you are in any hurry to get back? (B.P.)
2. I cannot forget the smallest detail of that room. (B.P.)
3. You have to remember that this was in the sixties. (B.P.)
4. “It wasn’t a pretty story, was it?” “No, not pretty.” (B.P.)
5. I don’t suppose you were too fond of him. (B.P.)
6. “Are you sure you’re feeling all right, Sally?” “Meaning ‘Am I sane?’ Yes, I’m quite, quite sane, Oliver.” (B.P.)
7. He tried to be off-hand and not too obviously uninterested. (W.G.)
8. Honey, a thin, not unattractive Negro girl of twenty, enters the living room with the morning paper. (G.&d'U)
9. "I didn't come here to make any speech ... And I didn't come here to ask you to give me anything, not even a vote." (R.P.W.)
10. He wished Beth [his wife] were there ... (J.F.)
11. I don't think he knew what he was saying. (G.G.)
12. ... the wretched plane didn't land till after seven. (J.F.)
13. "There's nothing wrong with your eyes. Off you go." (M.S.)
14. I wish the doctor hadn't gone. (B.Sh.)
15. It wasn't long before I heard the pacing start. (R.P.W.)
16. Paul had very little difficulty in finding the dining-
Exercise 16. Compensate for the underlined elements in translation.
1. " How's your boy?" the Boss asked. "Ain't been so good.," Old Leather-Face allowed. "Sick?" "Naw", Old Leather-Face allowed, "jail." (R.P.W.)
2. There is things which you have done which is unbeknowens to anybody but me. You better trot out a few dols, to yours truly, or you'll hear through the papers from HANDY ANDY. (M.T.)
3. AUGUSTUS. I came here to promise the Mayor a knighthood for his exertions.
THE CLERK. The Mayor! Where do I come in?
AUGUSTUS. You don't come in. You go out. (B.Sh.)
4. …Mr Prendergast made a little joke about soles and souls. (E.W.)
5. My daddy's coming tomorrow on a nairiplane. (J.D.S.)
6. I’ve noticed he don’t - doesn’t - talk that way. He has nice manners. (B.P.)
7. “What else had you to learn?” “Well, there was…Mystery, ancient and modern, with Seaography…” (L.C.)
8. “… he taught us Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils”. “What was that like?” “Well, I can’t show it you, myself,” the Mock Turtle said: “I’m too stiff.” (L.C.)
9. “… different branches of Arithmetic – Ambition, Distraction, Uglification, and Derision”. “I never heard of ‘Uglification,’” Alice ventured to say. “What is it?” The Gryphon lifted up both its paws in surprise. “Never heard of uglifying!” he exclaimed. “You know what to beautify is, I suppose. Don’t you?” “Yes,” said Alice, doubtfully: “it means – to – make – anything – prettier”. “Well then,” the Gryphon went on, “if you don’t know what to uglify is, you are a simpleton’.(L.C.)
Exercise 17. Translate, employing transposition of whatever elements it is necessary or desirable.
1. Dawn was already rising at the window. (B.P.)
2. A great storm was predicted for tomorrow. (B.P.)
3. There was sweat on his forehead, and his knees buckled. (B.P.)
4. I should have phoned ahead. (B.P.)
5. I’ve been using it [perfume] for the last two years at least. (B.P.)
6. There were few wedding presents. (E.W.)
7. A line of stiff yellowish half-washed clothes jittered on a rusty wire in the side yard. (R.Ch.)
8. A stout elderly woman dressed in a tweed coat and skirt and a jaunty Tyrolean hat advanced to the Doctor. (E.W.)
9. A child had appeared among the palms, about a hundred yards along the beach. (W.G.)
10. Presently there was a knock at the door, and a small boy
came in. (E.W.)
11. The poet's lips moved as he read ... (M.S.)
12. Breasley ... came in from the garden, as David stood at the foot of the stairs uncertain of where breakfast took place. (J.F.)
13. Billy lifted it [the script] and started to read it, standing by the refrigerator, while she fried his eggs and bacon. (M.S.)
14. The environment was comparatively new to him, he had
never acted in films. (M.S.)
15. He didn't seem to notice my silence, he was so wrapped up in his own. (R.P.W.)
16. He wasn't a film actor, really, Annable said. (M.S.)
17. My grandmother said, after she had sighed, "It's time you had your eyes tested." (M.S.)
Exercise 18. Translate the following sentences using the transformation of replacement at the lrvel of
a) parts of speech:
1. Dr Fagan gave a long sigh. (E.W.)
2. Mr Simmonds saw me out at the front door and gave me a pleading unhappy look. (M.S.)
3. "Oh, Grimes”, said Mr Prendergast, and he blushed warmly and gave a little giggle. (E.W.)
4. David forced a smile. (J.F.)
5. He became a quarreller, but not with her. (M.S.)
6. I had just managed to get down the last spoonful of chocolate ice cream, ... when the Boss, who was a powerful and systematic eater ... said, ... (R.P.W.)
7. Talking cheerfully, the party crossed the hall and went down the steps. (E.W.)
8. You are a sentimentalist. (B.P.)
9. She is a fast learner. (B.P.)
b) parts of the sentence:
1. “I was just reminiscing, seeing the carousel on the shelf.” “And that made you sad?” “But I am not sad. Really. Truly”. (B.P.)
2. I even wrote letters to him, asking for help for her ... But they didn't get any answer. (R.Ch.)
3. She was pleased with the apartment. (B.P.)
4. So Ian and I have something in common. (B.P.)
5. “What’s your name?” “Ian”. “It’s a queer name. How do you spell it?” (B.P.)”
6. Can you understand that? (B.P.)
7. The August day was miserably humid; one felt it even in the air-conditioned room. (B.P.)
8. I love your dress. (B.P.)
9. He had nothing to say. (B.P.)
10. I know he was shocked by the marriage, I’m sure you all were, but that’s no reason to be like this. (B.P.)
11. But tomorrow was hours away. (B.P.)
12. “Was it a break-in, a robbery?” “I don’t think so. Nothing was taken.” (B.P.)
13. The den was warm, as a den should be. (B.P.)
14. But that’s only to be expected. (B.P.)
15. Later that week, Ian received a telephone call at the office from his father. (B.P.)
c) syntactic type of the sentence:
1. He saw them look at him ... (G.G.)
2. "Dingy wants you to help her in there," he said firmly. (E.W.)
3. Then came the charge of poisoning my uncle to get his property... (M.T.)
4. I heard her fumbling steps going into the back part of the house. (R.Ch.)
5. It was the sound of something being pushed into the front door mail slot. (R.Ch.)
6. He thought of her as doing something far different from anything he wanted to do. She always agreed with him in this, being uncertain anyway, what he meant. (M.S.)
7. No one came to his aid, for there was no aid, nor anything to be done except to watch him cough, speed from the room, and return still purple-faced, but calmed. (B.P.)
8. I remember her saying something about that a while ago. (B.P.)
9. For a minute or two, she watched his car go down the driveway and pass out of sight. (B.P.)
10. I want to see you happy. (B.P.)
11. You claim to be a religious man. (B.P.)
Exercise 19. Translate the sentences making all necessary additions.
1. Clive was hardly a man to pay much attention to women’s jewelry…(B.P.)
2. The neighbors are very friendly. (B.P.)
3. He wants a few days before Christmas up at Red Hill, did you know? (B.P.)
4. Then the loneliness overwhelmed her…(B.P.)
5. ['Margot, darling, beloved, please, will you marry me?'... 'Well, that's rather what I've been wanting to discuss with you all day'…] 'Does that mean that possibly you might, Margot?' (E.W.)
6. "I don't want to hear about your affairs, you must manage them yourself." "Very well," said Soames immovably, "I will." (J.G.)
7. "Well, if you are all ready," said Irene, looking from one to the other with a strange smile, "dinner is too." (J.G.)
8. Dinner began in silence, the women facing one another, and the men. (J.G.)
9. Cutlets were handed, each pink-frilled about the legs. (J.G.)
10. June ... sat silent, with her face to the breeze. (J.G.)
11. She was upset. Something was therefore very wrong. Odd! She and Irene had been such friends. (J.G.)
12. She looked up at "the Goya" hanging opposite. (J.G.)
Exercise 20. What elements in the offered sentences want omission in translation? Translate the sentences.
1. What difference does it make? (B.P.)
2. How can you even think of such a thing? (B.P.)
3. Listen to me. (B.P.)
4. You’re a sweet person, Roxanne. (B.P.)
5. It was a dreadful thing that she had just said. (B.P.)
6. “So don’t be too upset.” “I’ll try not to be… “(B.P.)
7. He had no enemies, I suppose. Not Oliver Grey, oh no. (B.P.)
8. “If it’s not one problem, it’s another,” she said… “No it’s not, Sally. You solve one thing and go on to the next.” (B.P.)
9. Wait, let me tie my shoes, will you? (B.P.)
10. I’ve baked a batch of chocolate brownies. (B.P.)
11. 'Do you really and truly think so?' (E.W.)
12. "Oh, one other thing. Not a word to the boys, please, about the reasons for your leaving Oxford." (E.W.)
13. "... and do you think it would be a good thing to buy Mr Prendergast a new tie? ..." "No," said Dingy with finality, "that is going too far. Flowers and fireworks are one thing, but I insist on drawing a line somewhere." (E.W.)
14. "... She's also the one person Henry never but never loses temper with." (J.F.)
15. "Well, have you ever known a butler with a diamond tie-pin?" "No, I don't think I have". "Well, Philbrick's got one, and a diamond ring too... Colossal great diamonds..." (E.W.)
16. 'Hallo, you two!' he said. (E.W.)
Exercise 21. Translate sentences containing verbs in the Passive Voice. Explain your choice of a variant.
1. My grandmother was sentenced to Alaska for witchcraft. (J.S.)
2. “The Belle-Adair burned to the water-line, sir… She was insured”. “Of course she was”. “Well, I wasn’t”.(J.S.)
3. It [the lawn] was protected from the North by a high wall. (E.W.)
4. I was sent to have my eyes tested. (M.S.)
5. I was sent for to try on my new reading glasses. (M.S.)
6. Paul was awakened next morning by a loud bang on his door... (E.W.)
7. He knocked at the gate, was admitted, put away his bicycle, and diffidently, as always, made his way ... towards his room. (E.W.)
8. The smoke was being fanned away from his face by his hand. (R.Ch.)
9. Malvern went through the doors ... then past a row of small desks at which typewriters were being banged. (R.Ch.)
10. His clothes looked as if they had cost a great deal of money and had been slept in. (R.Ch.)
11. I said, "The bottle may have been tampered with, have you thought of that?" (M.S.)
Exercise 22. Translate, paying attention to the gerund. Explain your choice of a variant.
1. But, there, thinking’s no good to anyone – is it, madam? Thinking won’t help. (K.M.)
2. By money, Mary means new curtains and sure education for the kids and holding her head a little higher and… being proud rather than a little ashamed of me. (J.S.)
3. You are too fond of leaving the door open when you go out. (L.D.)
4. He stopped reading and put my paper down. (J.D.S.)
5. Pussycat, stop saying that. It's driving Mommy absolutely crazy. (J.D.S.)
6. She said gently, "Stop pretending. You're very tired." (J.F.)
7. He thought of smoking a pipe and reading another chapter of the F o r s y t e S a g a before going to bed. (E.W.)
8. "I wonder whether I'm going to enjoy being a schoolmaster," thought Paul. (E.W)
9. "And then I wonder whether there's any connection between becoming a decent painter and ... being normal." "You're not going to paint any better by forcing yourself to be abnormal." (J.F.)
10. That morning just before luncheon the weather began to show signs of clearing, and by half-past one the sun was shining. (E.W.)
Exercise 23. Translate. What means do you employ to render the meaning of the Past Perfect tense and the Perfect Infinitive?
1. “Maybe I shouldn’t say that. Bankers are not supposed to tell”. “You didn’t tell”. They had come to the corner where Elm angles into High Street. (J.S.)
2. “Croissant?” he asked. “No, thank you”, she said. “I’ve eaten”. (I.S.)
3. I had just filled and lit a pipe when the telephone rang again. (R.Ch.)
4. He was smaller than he had been two years ago. (M.S.)
5. I had nothing more to say. Indeed, I had said too much. (G.G.)
6. Ralph had stopped smiling and was pointing into the lagoon. (W.G.)
7. Nulty didn't seem to have moved. He sat in his chair in the same attitude of sour patience. (R.Ch.)
8. "What you been doing?" "What you ought to have done." (R.Ch.)
9. It must have been forgotten that I was arriving that afternoon. (J.F.)
10. Could I have dropped my wallet in the Pavillon? (G.G.)
11. Presently - it may have been within a few days or weeks - my reading glasses arrived and I wore them whenever I remembered to do so. (M.S.)
Exercise 24. Define the meaning of the underlined articles
and translate the sentences.
1. The officer is the one who gives the orders.(L.D.)
2. What wonderful news: the painting on my wall is a Rembrandt! (L.D.)
3. I’d like a coffee, please. (L.D.)
4. Utility, economy, and apparent durability are the qualities to be sought for, I think. (E.W.)
5. During the fourteen years that I have been at Llanabba there have been six sport days and two concerts ... (E.W.)
6. It is easy to look back and paint a picture of how things went. At the time it was all unclear. (M.S.)
7. "You are the Mrs Florian whose husband once ran a place of entertainment on Central Avenue?" (R.Ch.)
8. [Nulty turned over a photo that was lying face down on his desk and handed it to me. It was a police mug, front and profile, with a fingerprint classification underneath]. "That's the boy." (R.Ch.)
9. She opened the second door they came to and went a step in, holding the handle, watching him, uncannily like the patronne [Fr.- the mistress of the hotel] at the hotel where he had stayed the previous night. (J.F.)
10. (The negro bent regretfully and heaved a city directory up on top of the desk and pushed it towards me ...) There was a Jessie Florian ... in the book. (R.Ch.)
11. [Malwern, a private detective - hero of the story, - is making his way through a fighting crowd in a night club] Malvern shook an arm off ... (R.Ch.)
Exercise 25. Define the function of the infinitive in each sentence. Translate them.
1. The trouble is, you need capital to start. (J.S.)
2. You’ve given me a lot to chew on… But I wonder if you can give me some little idea of when you will start”. (J.S.)
3. He was alone ... Alone with his heart, his boot, his life to come ... (J.G.)
4. "To work", said the Doctor, "We have a lot to see to." (E.W.)
5. "Grimes," he said, "I can't keep you in the House after what has happened. I have the other boys to consider." (E.W.)
6. Nulty paused to collect a little breath and wait for my comments. (R.Ch.)
7. ... it seemed too good an opportunity to be missed. (E.W.)
8. I held the phone tight enough to crack it. (R.Ch.)
9. Alex shook my hand ... and slapped me on the shoulder with a palm that was tough enough to crack a black walnut. (R.P.W.)
10. He got to Orly [airport in Paris] to find the flight was delayed for half an hour. (J.F.)
11. I'm afraid you'll find my attitude rather difficult to understand. (E.W.)
Exercise 26. Single out absolute constructions, analyze their structure. Translate the sentences.
1. The May day was a late reminder of March, the sun having abruptly gone in behind gray-white clouds that, colored and curled like a sheep’s back, lay low in the sky. (B.P.)
2. At last Ralph ceased to blow and sat there, the conch trailing from one hand, his head bowed on his knees. (W.G.)
3. As the bell stopped ringing Dr Fagan swept into the hall, the robes of a Doctor of Philosophy swelling and billowing about him. (E.W.)
4. The prowl boys ... walk in, the front door not being locked. (R.Ch.)
5. He was a boy of perhaps six years, sturdy and fair, his clothes torn, his face covered with a sticky mess of fruit. (W.G.)
6. The boys stood ranged along the panelled walls, each holding in his hands a little pile of books. (E.W.)
7. Bryce-Green was sitting, with cigar held out and mouth a little open ... (J.G.)
8. ... Francesca had them photographed with a low table set with a lace-edged tray of afternoon tea and the sun streaming in the window. (M.S.)
9. I went. I worked around the edge of the grandstand, through the crowd, with Willie's voice hammering on the eardrums and shaking dead leaves off the oak trees. (R.P.W.)
10. Close to the road a cow would stand knee-deep in the mist, with horns damp enough to have a pearly shine in the starlight ... (R.P.W.)
Exercise 27. Translate the following, paying attention to causative verbs.
1. His wife ... had been compelled ..., owing to the ailing state of their child, to go up to the mountains to her mother ... (Th.D.)
2. He had a shower and forced himself to reread his draft introduction to "The Art of Henry Breasley" ... (J.F.)
3. The country air tempted us to get up early. (B.Sh.)
4. ... she continued the story how she was led to give up general practice and take up psychology. (M.S.)
5. "We got to find the others. We got to do something." (W.G.)
6. If you could try and get her to talk. (J.F.)
7. Why don't you get him to see you in town sometime? (R.P.W.)
8. [The child comes home and the parent puts the hooks on him ...] All he wants is to have his child sit in a chair for a couple of hours and then go off to bed under the same roof. (R.P.W.)
9. It's all up with his candidature. He'll be laughed out of the town. (B.Sh.)
10. [Under such circumstances many other women besides Mrs Dungeon find themselves sitting up all night waiting for news.] Like her, too, they fall asleep towards morning at the risk of nodding themselves into the kitchen fire. (B.Sh.)
Exercise 28. Translate the following emphatic sentences. What means of emphasis were used by the authors? How is adequacy of translation achieved?
1. “You seem to have got over your mullygrabs” "I had them…yesterday. Don’t know where they come from”. “Don’t I know! Sometimes with me not for the usual reason”. (J.S.)
2. Not for five minutes could they drag themselves away from this triumph. (W.G.)
3. "On your marks! Get set." Bang went Mr Philbrick's revolver. Off trotted the boys on another race. (E.W.)
4. It should have been stuff called eserine. That's what she usually had, the doctor says. (M.S.)
5. Well, that's what we all think about him, anyway. (E.W.)
6. I think it was then she recognized me. (M.S.)
7. There was a strong hope that Miss Simmonds' one eye would survive. It was she who made up the prescription. (M.S.)
8. "But I expect I'm boring you?" "No, do go on." (E.W.)
9. I knew he was going to select one sheet of paper from the sheaf, and this one document would be the exciting, important one ... He did extract one long sheet of paper, and hold it up. (M.S.)
10. "And now I am going to play the organ”, said Beste-
Chetwynde. "After all, my mother does pay five guineas a term
extra for me to learn." (E.W.)