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To create a romantic atmosphere, the general colouring of elevation (in poetry);






4. To introduce the atmosphere of solemnity (in official speech);

 

Informal(colloquial) vocabulary comprises words of colloquial, conversational character used in personal, everyday communication. Informal (colloquial) vocabulary consists of words formed by means of composition and conversion: go-between, a come-back, a let-down, a has-been, a kill-joy.

Let me say in the beginning that even if I wanted to avoid Texas I could not, for I am wived in Texas, and mother-in-lawed and uncled, and aunted and cousined within an inch of life”.(St.)

”Hello, kid! Gee, you look cute, all right”. (Dr.)

Colloquial words are employed in non-official everyday communication and mark the message as informal, non-official and conversational. Their use is associated with the oral form of communication.

E.g. dad”, “kid”, “crony”, “fan”, “to pop”, “folks”.

E.g. She’s engaged. Nice guy, too. Though there’s a slight difference in height. I’d say a foot, her favor. (T. Capote)

Slang is a special vocabulary of low and vulgar type, often fresh and emotional description of an object, being highly colloquial and possessing all the connotations: emotive, expressive, evaluative and stylistic. E.g.: jack, tin, brass, vof, dough, slippery stuff, loot, lolls, gravy, bucks are stylistic synonyms of a neutral word money.

General slang are special colloquial words which are used by most speakers in informal, substandard communication. They are highly emotive and expressive and as such lose their originality rather fast and are replaced by newer formations, unstable, fluctuating, and tending to expanded synonymy within certain lexico-semantic groups.

E.g. pot, grass, (drugs), cool, , groovy (pleasant), chick (girl) dough, bread (money).

Fried, crocked, squiffed, loaded, plastered, blotto, tiddled, soaked, boiled, stinko, viled, polluted, honked (to be drunk). (SAS, V.A.K.)

E.g. “Do you talk?” asked Bundle. “Or are you just strong and silent?” “Talk?” said Anthony. “I burble. I murmur. I gurgle – like a running brook, you know. Sometimes I even ask questions.” (A.Christie)

Special slang - special colloquial words, which stand close to jargon, also being substandard, expressive and emotive and restricted to a particular professional or social shere:

Army slang: to go west (die); a brass head (officer of high rank)

Prison slang: slammer (a jail), juvie (a police officer), glommed (arrested) (SAS).

Jargon - is a low colloquial vocabulary meant to be secret and cryptic (social jargon) or being an expressive idiom of terms in the literary layer of the vocabulary: Jargonisms - are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (professional jargonisms or professionalisms) or socially (jargonisms proper).

Professional jargonisms or Professionalisms (профессионализмы) are connected with the technical side of some profession. They are formed according to the existing word-building patterns of present existing words in new meanings, and, covering the field of special professional knowledge, which is semantically limited; they offer a vast variety of synonymic choices for naming one and the same professional item. E.g.: “driller” = borer, digger, wrencher, hogger, brake weight; “pipeliner” = swabber, bender, cat, old cat, collar-pecker, hammerman.(SAS, V.A.K)

Jargonisms proper or social jargonisms. They cover a narrow semantic field and sphere of application and tend to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated. They are secretive and cryptic, they mostly originated from the thieves’ jargon (l’argo, cant), which was to preserve secrecy within a group. This is a code within a code (I.R.G.). He got a book (life sentence). Rocko carried an equalizer (gun, pistol), but wouldn’t dream of using it. (SAS)

Lefty jooged (stabbed) the screw. (SAS)

Dialect is a regional variety with violation of phonetic and grammatical norm: maister (master), bus [u], cup [u], wee (will), laird (lord), zee (see), zinking (sinking).

Dialectical words (диалектизмы) - special colloquial words, which are normative and devoid of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong; they markedly differ on the phonemic level: one and the same phoneme is differently pronounced in each of them; differ also on the lexical level, having their own names for locally existing phenomena and also supplying locally circulating synonyms for the words, accepted by the language in general.

E.g. :How ya? (S.) Would they of knaved (knew)you was comin’ out (S.)

E.g. A hut was all the (= the only) home he ever had.

E.g. Mary sits aside (= beside) of her sister on the bus. (V.A.K.)

Vulgarisms (вульгаризмы) are coarse special colloquial words with a strong emotive meaning, mostly derogatory, normally avoided in polite conversation: e.g. “son of a bitch”, “whore”, “whorehound”.

e.g. There is so much bad shit between the two gangs that I bet there will be more killings this year. (V.A.K.) Talking in the camps, and the deputies, fat-assed men with guns slung on fat hips, swaggering through the camps: Give ‘em somepin to think about. (S.)

Slang: money (jack, tin, brass, vof, dough, slippery stuff, loot, lolly, gravy, etc).

Jargon: He got a book (life sentence)

Dialect: maister, bus [u], cup [u], weel, laird, zee (see), zinking (sinking)

 

Stylistic functions of non-literary vocabulary:

1. To create true-to-life atmosphere;

2. To create the atmosphere of informality, intimacy;

3. To create a sense of immediate communication with the reader;

4. To create a satirical or ironical effect.







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