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ANTONOMASIA is a SD based on the usage of a common noun instead of a proper name & vice versa to characterize the person simultaneously with naming him – the so called “speaking names»: Lady Teasle, Miss Sharp, Mister Logic.
Every Caesar has his Brutus.
Table 8 Prof. Arnold’s classification of TROPES:
Litotes: a trope in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative or vice versa:
“It was not without a certain wild pleasure I ran before the wind (Jane Eyre).
Structural patterns of litotes:
1) the presence of the key-element “not”.
“It is not unreasonable.”
2) the key-element “too” + “not”.
“I am not too sure.”
3) the key-element “rather, pretty, scarcely, etc…”
Irony: opposition of what is said to what is meant:
“The garden bore witness to a love of growing plants which extended to many types commonly known as weeds. (J. Wain)
Epithet: a word (a group of words) carrying an expressive (emotive) characterization of an object described: “Full many a glorious morning have I seen..."
1) tautological: “green grass”
2) evaluative: “a pompously majestic female”
3) descriptive: “an unnaturally mild day”
4) metaphorical:”the smiling sun”
5) metonymical: “the sleepless pillow”
Oxymoron: a conjunction of seemingly contradictory notions: “And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true” (A.Tennison).
Hyperbole is an exaggerated statement not meant to be taken literally to express a highly emotional attitude towards the thing described: “He was all starch and vinegar.”
Zeugma: two homogeneous members grammatically, but semantically different, “Killing time with a book was not much better than killing pheasants and time with a gun.”
Semantically false chain is a variety of zeugma consisting of a number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but attached to the same verb. It is based on the effect of defeated expectancy and produces a humorous effect. Ex.: “Babbitt respected bigness in anything: in mountains, jewels, muscles, wealth of words”. (S.L.)
Pun (play on words) is based on simultaneous realization of two meanings of a polysemantic
word or the usage of two homonyms in the same context:
- Have you ever seen him at the bar?
- Thousand times. He was a drunkard.
Prof. Galperin’s classification:
Table 9 Classification of Lexical Stylistic Devices (LSD)(I.R.Galperin, V.A.Kucharenko)
b) Anaphora: a…; a…; a…;
c) Epiphora: …a; …a; …a;
d) Anadiplosis: a…b; b…c;
e) Chain repetition: a…b; b…c; c…d …
f) Successive repetition: a…b, b, b …