Antonomasia.Irony. Epithet.

ANTONOMASIA is a SD based on the usage of a common noun instead of a proper name & vice versa to characterize the person simultaneously with naming him the so called speaking names: Lady Teasle, Miss Sharp, Mister Logic.

Every Caesar has his Brutus.

Table 8 Prof. Arnolds classification of TROPES:


(Figures of Quantity) Tropes (Figures of Quality)  

Metaphor (Personification)

Metonymy (Synecdoche)

Allegory Allusion

Litotes: a trope in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative or vice versa:

It was not without a certain wild pleasure I ran before the wind (Jane Eyre).

Structural patterns of litotes:

1) the presence of the key-element not.

It is not unreasonable.

2) the key-element too + not.

I am not too sure.

3) the key-element rather, pretty, scarcely, etc

Irony: opposition of what is said to what is meant:

The garden bore witness to a love of growing plants which extended to many types commonly known as weeds. (J. Wain)

Epithet: a word (a group of words) carrying an expressive (emotive) characterization of an object described: Full many a glorious morning have I seen..."


1) tautological: green grass

2) evaluative: a pompously majestic female

3) descriptive: an unnaturally mild day

4) metaphorical:the smiling sun

5) metonymical: the sleepless pillow

Oxymoron: a conjunction of seemingly contradictory notions: And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true (A.Tennison).

Hyperbole is an exaggerated statement not meant to be taken literally to express a highly emotional attitude towards the thing described: He was all starch and vinegar.

Zeugma: two homogeneous members grammatically, but semantically different, Killing time with a book was not much better than killing pheasants and time with a gun.

Semantically false chain is a variety of zeugma consisting of a number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but attached to the same verb. It is based on the effect of defeated expectancy and produces a humorous effect. Ex.: Babbitt respected bigness in anything: in mountains, jewels, muscles, wealth of words. (S.L.)

Pun (play on words) is based on simultaneous realization of two meanings of a polysemantic

word or the usage of two homonyms in the same context:

- Have you ever seen him at the bar?

- Thousand times. He was a drunkard.

Prof. Galperins classification:

Lexical SD:

Table 9 Classification of Lexical Stylistic Devices (LSD)(I.R.Galperin, V.A.Kucharenko)

Interrelation of 2 Logical m-gs Interrelation Of Logical & Emotive m-gs Interrelation Of Logical & Nominal Interrelation of Logical & Phrasal m-gs
Metaphor Metonymy Irony Epithet Oxymoron Hyperbole Antonomasia Zeugma Pun Semantically False Chain
Syntactical SD (SSD) I.R.Galperin
Economy of Lg elements Redundancy of Lg elements Distribution of Lg elements
Ellipsis Aposiopesis Asyndeton Apokoinu Construction     1. Reiteration a) Ordinary b) Anaphora c) Epiphora d) Framing e) Anadiplosis f) Chain r-n g) Morphological r-n 2. Parallelism 3. Polysyndeton 4. Chiasmus 1. Inversion a) Partial b) Complete c) Secondary 2. Rhetorical question 3. Detachment 4. Attachment 5. Suspense    


a) Ordinary:

b) Anaphora: a; a; a;

c) Epiphora: a; a; a;

d) Anadiplosis: ab; bc;

e) Chain repetition: ab; bc; cd

f) Successive repetition: ab, b, b

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