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Colloquial coinages.

The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary. (Table 7) Stylistic Differentiation of the English Vocabulary (I.R.G)


Formal (Literary) vocabulary: (solemn, elevated, learned, poetic): are words of solemn, elevated character (learned, poetic).

Syn.: Literary words, learned words, bookish words, high-flown words- serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose.

They are mainly observed in the written form and contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, gravity, learnedness.

E.g. I must decline to pursue this painful discussion. It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to my feelings. (D)

The party arranged themselves on the different sides of the lofty apartment, and seemed eager to escape from the transient union, which the narrowness of the crowded entrance had for an instance compelled them to submit to”. (W.Scott)

Terms (special literary words) are words denoting objects, processes, phenomena of science, humanities, technique: drill adapter, bank-administered trust fund, curve analyzer, laser, diode, and ripple.

Neologisms (неологизмы) or literary coinages are new words or expressions which designate new-born concepts (terminological coinages) and the words coined to seek expressive utterance (stylistic coinages): e.g. Take-away, high-rise, hang-glider, wrist phone, cellular phone.

Archaic words are words regarded relics of ancient times gradually passing out of general use or having completely gone out of use. They are subdivided into:

a) Historical words, denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use and have no notion at present: e.g. “yeoman”, coif and distaff; “vassal”, “falconet”.

b) Obsolescent (rarely used) words and grammatical forms, substituted by modern synonyms: thee, thy, art,-eth, “maketh” (makes), “thou wilt” (you will).

E.g. If manners maketh man, then manner and grooming maketh poodle. (J.Steinbeck)

c) Obsolete (out of use at present, but recognized): methinks, alack, alas.

d) Archaic words proper, in the course of language history ousted by newer synonymous words or forms and not recognized in modern English: troth (faith), a losel (a lazy fellow), anon (soon), to deem” (to think), “quoth” (“said”), “brethren” (brothers), whereof, aforesaid, hereby, therewith, hereinafter named.

e) Poetic words (diction) denote a set of words traditionally used in poetry: behold, deem, thee, aught, foe, ere, woe, nigh, oft, anon, morn, visage. They were mostly used in the poetry of the 17 – 19 centuries:”steed” - horse, “woe” - sorrow, “eftsoons” - again, soon after, “rondure” - roundness . E.g. “ In loving thee thou know’ st I am forsworn (Sh.)

Barbarisms (варваризмы) are foreign words of phrases, words assimilated from foreign languages and having become a part of the English word-stock. They are:

a) Fully assimilated (wine, street, reprimand, helicopter);

b) Partially assimilated (machine, police, garage, prestige);

c) Unassimilated: randezvous, belles lettres, alter ego, chic, bonmot, en passant, delicatessen, matador, hippopotamus, marauder, Midi, guerre des baguettes, boulangers, croissants.

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