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EXERCISE 47b — Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and nouns from this section. Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense.

1. Tom is going to live with his Uncle John. What is Tom going to do?

2. The government is spending less on the military. What is the government doing?

3. In Question 2, what would you call this reduction in military spending?

4. I can't figure out where the mosquitoes are entering my house. What can't I figure out?

5. My plane didn't arrive on time. What didn't my plane do?

6. Bob's taking all his furniture out of his old apartment. What is Bob doing?

7. You spent all your money, and now you're broke. What did you do?

8. Nancy's truck was parked, but now she's driving it into the street. What is Nancy doing?

9. Sarah shouldn't have built a pool in such a small backyard. What shouldn't Sarah have done?

10. Daniela hasn't studied Italian since high school, but she's been studying it again lately because she's going to Italy soon. What is Daniela doing?

11. Charles might change his mind and decide not to participate in a business deal. What might Charles do?

12. Your dentist told you that you should eat less candy. What did your dentist tell you?

13. Ned is going to arrive at work late tomorrow. What is Ned going to do?

14. Jane is working very hard to learn Chinese. What is Jane doing?

15. The basketball game ended before Jim's team could score enough points to win it. Why didn't Jim's team win the game?

16. Joe hasn't placed his clothes in the washing machine. What hasn't Joe done?

17. Tom asked Sally when she was taking her furniture into her new apartment. What did Tom ask Sally?

18. Bill deposits $1,000 every month in his checking account. What does Bill do every month?

EXERCISE 47c, Review — Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections. Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense. To check their meanings, review the section number given after each one.

bump into, 46 get down, 42 kick out, 43 stop off, 43
con into, 46 get inlinto, 42 make for, 46 talkinto,46
con out of, 46 get out, 42 rip off, 44 talk out of, 46
freak out, 46 get up, 42 shut up, 43 try on, 43


1. Alfonso must have ________ ________ thirty pairs of pants before picking one out.

2. Bob got ________ ________ of the bar after he started a fight.

3. You can't trust Marvin at all. He ________ ________ everyone he does business with.

4. I can't reach those books on the top shelf. Would you ________ them ________ for me, please?

5. That sneaky real estate agent ________ me ________ selling her my house for a lot less than it was worth.

6. My parents live between my job and my home, so sometimes on the way home from work I ________ ________ for a visit.

7. Sam's wife didn't want to go camping with him, but he finally ________ her __________ it.

8. My father-in-law was ________ ________ ________ $800 by a house painter

who took the money but never came back to start painting the house.

9. When I was a child, my mother was on drugs and my father was in jail. That situation didn't ________ ________ a very happy childhood.

10. Carlos ________ ________ the table, and a glass of wine fell on the floor.

11. All you ever do is talk, talk, talk. Will you please ________ ________?

12. It sure was hot yesterday. It must have ________ ________ to 100 degrees.

13. Our daughter has decided to get her nose pierced, and there's no way we can ________ her ________ ________ it.

14. I found my old army uniform in the attic, and I can still ________________ it even though it's twenty-five years old.

15. My teacher caught me cheating on the test today, and he said he's going to call my parents tomorrow to tell them. How am I going to _______ _______ of this mess?

16. I saw a guy today who looked exactly like my dead brother. It really ________ me ________.

48. FOCUS ON: modals and present perfect passive phrasal verbs

In Section 43, we discussed the use of several modal and semimodal auxiliaries in the present perfect. These same modals and semimodals are commonly used in passive sentences. The modal or semimodal is followed by have or the contraction 've, been, and the past participle:

could + have + been + past participle would + have + been + past participle should + have + been + past participle have to + have + been + past participle must + have + been + past participle might + have + been + past participle may + have + been + past participle

Let's compare a present perfect active sentence containing a modal with a present perfect passive sentence containing a modal:


active: Jane might haveswitched on the light. passive: The light might have beenswitched on.

As we have seen, the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Also, there is no object in the passive sentence, so the pas­sive phrasal verb cannot be separated. The object of the active sentence can be used in a by phrase:

active: Jane might haveswitched on the light. passive: The light might have beenswitched on (by Jane).

And once again we see that it is not always easy to distinguish between a past participle:

The burglar alarm must have beenswitched off

(by the night manager because he's the only one with a key).

and a participle adjective:

The burglar alarm must have beenswitched off (because if it had been on, everyone in the neighborhood would have heard it when the burglars smashed the window of the jewelry store).

    present tense -ing form past tense past participle
close down                
close down & closes down closing down closed down closed down


1. close... down p.v. When youclose down a business or a business isclosed down, it closes permanently or for a long time.

The restaurant wasclosed down by the health department.

The ski resort willclose down for the summer on May 1.

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