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Phrases (word-combinations), syntactic constructions (complexes), clauses, sentences, texts as units of syntax
A phrase is a combination of 2 or more words which is a gram. unit, i.e. there exists definite syntagmatic & syntactic relation between the words and the phrase is not supposed to be an analytical form of some word. The constituent elements of the phrase may belong to diff. parts of speech. If there is no semantic, syntactic relation, then it’s not a phrase: He took it badly (phrase), He took it bad (not a phrase). There is a specific type of phrase called syntactic construction. Syntactic constructions are those word-combinations which serve as a separate part of the sentence usually represented by 1 word. It is supposed to display some kind of predicative relation. We saw him cross the street (We saw – predicative relation, him cross – syntactic construction. |The difference between a sentence & a phrase is: 1) they have different functions; 2) a phrase can undergo grammatical changes without destroying itself: write letters – wrote letters – will write letters – it’s 1 phrase. BUT Last year he wrote a lot of letters to our friends – He writes a lot of letters – these are diff. sentences. |Sentence is a predicative unit, its function is predication. It’s a minimum synt. unit used in the communicative speech acts, built up according to some definite structural & intonational patterns & possessing some properties (categories) of the sentence, such as predicativity, modality, temporality, communicativity. |Structurally sentences fall into 2 major groups: 1) simple; 2) composite. |Simple have only 1 predicative relation, i.e. 1 subject & 1 predicate: Children jump and run in the street. |Composite may be compound & complex. |Compound consist of clauses, minimum 2 coordinate clauses; in complex sent-s 1 clause is principal, another 1 – subordinate. |In the speech sent-s do not occur separately, they’re supposed to be connected both semantically-topically & syntactically. These groups of words form textual unities & the process is called cumulation. Units of speech are cumulemes. |These groups may also be called complex syntactic unities or supra-phrasal unities. In the written speech they’re called paragraphs which have their own internal organization, they’re characterized by predicativity & modality. Paragraphs are connected into bigger units – texts. Paragraph groupings are cumulated into whole texts.
25. Syntagmatic relations in syntax. Syntactic relations & syntactic connections
Syntagmas are parts which the sentence may be broken into. Syntactic relations may be of 2 kinds: 1) equipotent (between words related to 1 another on equal basis)=coordinate; 2) dominational (between syntactically unequal words)=subordinate. In the case of equipotent relation the words in the phrase aren’t modified with 1 another, but the 2nd word is modifier of the other. |According to the nature of the headword in the dominational word-combinations phrases can be subdivided into: noun phrases (good friend), verb phrases (to go quickly), pronominal phrases (for him to go), adjectival phrases (very nice), adverbial phrases (very well). Synt.relations have their own connections. Equipotent relations have 2 types of connections: 1) syndetic (deals with conjunctions and, but, or); 2) asyndetic (realised through comma: no moon, no stars). Dominational have 4 types: 1) agreement (concord) – the headword & the adjunct must have the same grm.form: this girl – these girls; 2) government – subordinate word is used in the form required by the headword but not coinciding to it: We invited him to the party (not he); 3) attachment (adjoinment) – there must exist some syntactic relations between words: to run quickly (not brightly); 4) enclosure – 1 element of the phrase is enclosed between the elements of the other which is usually headword: the then president.
27. Predicative word-combinations. Primary and secondary predication. Infinitival, participial and gerundial construction, their function in the sentence
Predicative word-combinations are those consisting of N+V and displaying some kind of predicative relation (the relation between subject and predicate of the phrase) man writes-man wrote. If this noun & verb in predicative phrase coincide with subject & predicate of the sentence this type of predication is called primary. If it isn’t the case our phrase will present secondary nomination: The lessons over(secondary),everybody went(primary predication) home.The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle stands in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case; the noun or pronoun is not the subject of the sentence. The door and window of the vacant room being open, we looked in. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier. It can be an adverbial modifier: (a)of time (b)of cause (c)of attendant circumstances. (d)of condition. The Nominative Absolute Construction is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time or attendant circumstances. In the function of an adverbial modifier of time this construction is rendered in Russian by an adverbial clause. Breakfast over, he went to his counting house. The Objective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. In the Objective Participial Construction Participle 1 Indefinite Active or Participle II is used. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object. Occasionally the meaning of the construction is different: it may show that the person denoted by the subject of the sentence experiences the action expressed by the participle. The Subjective Participial Constructionis a construction in which the participle (mostly Participle I) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case, which is the subject of the sentence. The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate.
The Objective-with-the-infinitive Constructionis a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object,The Subjective Infinitive Construction(traditionally called the Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction) is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate. Edith is said to resemble me. The for-to-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition for. The construction can have different functions in the sentence. It can be:1. Subject (often with the introductory it).2. Predicative. 3. Complex object. 4. Attribute. 5. Adverbial modifier; (a) of purpose. (b) of result. Predicative constructions with the gerund. Like all the verbals the gerund can form predicative constructions, i. e. constructions in which the verbal element expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a noun or pronoun. I don't like your going off without any money. The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways.1. If it denotes a living being it may be expressed: (a) by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun, b) by a noun in the common case.2. If the nominal element of the construction denotes a lifeless thing, it is expressed by a noun in the common case (such nouns, as a rule, are not used in the genitive case) or by a possessive pronoun. I said something about my clock being slow. 3. The nominal element of the construction can also be expressed by a pronoun which has no case distinctions, such as all, this, that, both, each, something. I insist on both of them coming in time. Again Michael… was conscious of something deep and private stirring within himself.