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Syntactic processes of extension, expansion, replacement, representation, complication, substitution and ellipsis
Syntactic processes are those which serve to make an unexpanded simple sentence that is a monopredicative sentence formed only by obligatory notional parts into expanded simple sentence which includes some optional parts. The main syntactic processes are extension, expansion, replacement, representation, complication, substitution and ellipsis. Extension is a modification of one member of the sentence by another standing in the subordinate position to the former. he was given a red carpet welcome. All kinds of attributes, modifiers is extension. Expansion consists in addition of the same parts of the sentence to existing ones. It is not obligatory from point of view of the sentence structure. Any part of the sentence can undergo expansion. I waited & waited. Nice, nice old woman. He told me everything – his love, his hope, his despair. He pushed me suddenly & with energy. It produces homogeneous parts of the sentence. Replacement – rare, only predicate can be replaced, double-predicate. He lay awake for a long time. = he was lying & didn’t sleep for a long time. Representationis the use of a part of some syntactic unit for the whole of this unit. Capable of performing the function of representative are: auxiliaries – you have told lies again.-but I haven’t.links – are you tired&- I am. Modals – can you speak English? - I can. Infinitive or particle to- I couldn’t find him though I tried to. Complication is a change of a syntactic unit structure (a member of a sentence) from a simple one into complex or compound one. Different parts of the sentence may be complicated: they drive in the country every weekend. They are likely to drive… they are said to drive…(predicate is complicated) he pushed the door. He pushed the door open. (object) Compound & complex structures are result of complication. Substitution is the use of words with generalized structural meaning instead of those with concrete meaning mentioned earlier in the text. This function can be performed by word substitutes. I didn’t like the movie. Neither did I. I haven’t applied for study but I’m going to do so. Ellipsis is making some element of the construction implied on the basis of its obligatory combinability. This element can always be easily reconstructed from the context. You look so tired.-I am a little. I don’t like sushi.-me neither.