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Sentence, its categories and aspects
Sentenceis a minimal syntactic unit, used in the communicative speech acts, characterized by predicativity & formed by definite structural patterns. Every sentence is based on so-called proposition which shows that there exists some kind of relation of the denoted event to the reality. The category of predicativity is compulsory category of the sentence, ‘tis based on secondary categories: modality, personality, temporality. The category of modality describes the relation of its contents to reality. The action, state may be real or unreal. Shown by modals. Another meaning–relation between subject & predicate, either necessity or ability or advisability. Also degree of speaker’s knowledge, certainty about the contents of the utterance-modal verbs, words, adverbs. Temporality, from the point of view of category of tense each sentence belongs to the past, present, future tense. The benchmark is moment of speaking. May be found in two-member & one-member sentences. Personality shows the relation of the speaker to the subject of the sentence, sometimes they coincide: I got hot./There’re 3 aspects of the sentence: structural, semantic, pragmatic. Structural aspect includes the form of the sentence (affirmative, negative, interrogative, imperative) & the structure proper(two-member, one-member, simple, composite). Semantic aspect deals with the generalized meaning of the sentence on the whole (proposition) & its main & secondary parts. The subject is the doer of the action or bearer of the sign. The predicate-action, state, process. Attribute-quality or quantity, object-the goal of the action, adv. modifier-qualitative characteristic of the action, state. Pragmatic aspect characterizes the sentence as unit of speech communication. From this point of view sentences may be divided: statements, questions, orders, requests, promises, wishes. The sentences are called utterances & usually are produced by the speaker, directed on listener are called communicative utterances, they constitute the major group. Non-communicative utterances-minor group, aren’t directed on listener, give some characteristic of the situation, express emotions. Oh, my god!