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A.P.Tikhonova

A CONISE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ( ): . - : - , 2009. - 132 .

 

 

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02.26.00 (031201) ( ) , .

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ISBN

 

Ó , 2009

CONTENTS

Introduction
Part 1  
GERMANIC LANGUAGES
1.1. Classification of GermanicLanguages
1.2. Ancient Germanic Tribes and theirClassification..
1.3. GermanicAlphabets
1.4. Some Phonetic Peculiarities of GermanicLanguages.
1.4.1.Consonants
1.4.1.1. The First Consonant Shift (GrimmsLaw)
1.4.1.2. Verner`s Law.
1.4.2. Word Stress
1.4.3.Vowels..
1.4.3.1. Stressed Vowels
1.4.3.2. Germanic Fracture(Breaking)...
1.4.3.3. Gradation or Ablaut...
1.4.3.4. Unstressed Vowels
1.5.Grammatical Peculiarities of Germanic Languages
1.5.1.The Noun..
1.5.2.The Adjective
1.5.3.The Verb...
1.6. Vocabulary
Part 2  
OLD ENGLISH
2.1. Periods in the History of English
2.2.Historical Background.
2.2.1. The Roman Conquest of Britain..
2.2.2.The Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain.
2.3.Alphabet and Pronunciation
2.4. Old English Dialects and Written Records.
2.5.Some Phonetic Changes of the Old English Period
2.5.1.Vowels..
2.5.2. Old English Breaking...
2.5.3. Palatal Mutation (i-mutation)...
2.5.4. Back or Velar Mutation (Velarization)
2.5.5. Diphthongization of Vowels after Palatal Consonants
2.5.6. Lengthening of Vowels
2.5.7. Unstressed Vowels..
2.5.8.Consonants
2.5.9. Palatalization of Velar Consonants.
2.5.10. Assimilation, Metathesis, Doubling of Consonants, Loss of Consonants
2.6. Old English Morphology
2.6.1. Old English Noun: General Characteristics
2.6.2. Vowel Stems: Strong Declension
2.6.2.1. a-stems..
2.6.2.2. ō-stems..
2.6.2.3. i-stems...
2.6.2.4. u-stems
2.6.3. Consonant Stems: Weak Declension, Minor Declensions.
2.6.3.1. n-stems: Weak Declension
2.6.3.2. r-stems..
2.6.3.3. s-stems...
2.6.4. Root-Stems..
2.6.5. Pronouns..
2.6.5.1. Personal Pronouns
2.6.5.2. Demonstrative Pronouns...
2.6.6. Adjectives
2.6.6.1. Strong Declension of Adjectives..
2.6.6.2. Weak Declension of Adjectives
2.6.6.3. Degrees of Comparison
2.6.7. Adverbs
2.6.7.1. Formation of Adverbs..
2.6.7.2. Comparison of Adverbs
2.6.8. The Verb: General Characteristics..
2.6.8.1. Strong Verbs.
2.6.8.2. Weak Verbs..
2.6.8.3. Preterite Present Verbs..
2.6.8.4. Anomalous verbs..
2.6.8.5. Suppletive Verbs..
2.7. Old English Syntax
2.8. The Old English Vocabulary.
2.8.1. Word Building.
2.8.2. Borrowings..
Part 3  
MIDDLE ENGLISH
3.1. Historical Background
3.1.1. Scandinavian Invasions
3.1.2. The Norman Conquest.
3.2. Middle English Dialects, Rise of the London Dialect
3.3. Early Middle English Written Records..
3.4. Word Stress
3.5. Vowels
3.5.1. Unstressed Vowels..
3.5.2. Stressed vowels
3.5.2.1. Quantitative Vowel Changes
3.5.2.2. Qualitative Vowel Changes Monophthongs.
3.5.2.3. Monophthongization of Old English Diphthongs.
3.5.2.4. Rise of New Diphthongs...
3.6. Evolution of Consonants
3.7. Spelling Changes
3.7.1. Changes in the Designation of Vowels
3.7.2. Changes in the Designation of Consonants.
3.8. Changes in the Grammatical System..
3.8.1. Preliminary Remarks...
3.8.2. The Noun.
3.8.2.1. Gender...
3.8.2.2. Number..
3.8.2.3. Decay of Noun Declensions.
3.8.3. The Adjective..
3.8.3.1. Declension of Adjectives in Late Middle English
3.8.3.2. Degrees of Comparison.
3.8.4. Adverbs
3.8.4.1. Formation of Adverbs...
3.8.4.2. Comparison of Adverbs
3.8.5. The Pronoun.
3.8.5.1. Personal Pronouns.
3.8.5.2. Possessive pronouns.
3.8.5.3. Demonstrative Pronouns...
3.8.5.4. Rise of the Articles
3.8.6. The Verb: General Characteristics..
3.8.6.1. Changes in the Morphological Classes of Verbs, Strong Verbs
3.8.6.2. Weak Verbs...
3.8.6.3. Preterite-Present Verbs.
3.8.6.4. Suppletive verbs
3.8.6.5. Rise of Analytical Forms..
3.8.7. Development of the Syntactic System.
3.9. Vocabulary Changes..
3.9.1. Native Derivational Affixes.
3.9.2. French Derivational Affixes
3.9.3. Scandinavian Borrowings
3.9.4. French Borrowings..
Part 4  
NEW ENGLISH
4.1. The formation of the English National Language..
4.2. Changes in Pronunciation...
4.2.1. Development of Unstressed Vowels
4.2.1.1. Loss of unstressed e [ə]..
4.2.1.2. Loss of Vowels in Intermediate Syllables.
4.2.2. Stressed Vowels...
4.2.2.1. The Great Vowel Shift..
4.2.2.2. Shortening of Long Vowels..
4.2.2.3. Development of Short Vowels..
4.2.2.4. The Development of the New Short []
4.2.2.5. Changes in Diphthongs.
4.2.2.6. Vowel Changes under the Influence of Consonants.
4.2.3. Consonants..
4.2.3.1. Voicing of Voiceless Consonants.
4.2.3.2. Loss of Consonants...
4.2.3.3. Change of [d] to [ð] when Close to [r]..
4.2.3.4. Development of Sibilants and Affricates..
4.3. Changes in Spelling
4.4. Local Dialects.
4.4.1. Scottish Dialect
4.4.2. Northern Dialects.
4.4.3. Western, Central and Southern Dialects..
4.5. Some Essential Grammatical Changes of the New English Period: Morphology
4.5.1. The Noun.
4.5.1.1. Number.
4.5.1.2. Cases.
4.5.2. The Pronoun.
4.5.2.1. Personal Pronouns.
4.5.2.2. Possessive Pronouns.
4.5.3. The Adjective..
4.5.4. Adverbs
4.5.5. The Verb..
4.5.5.1. Personal Endings..
4.5.5.2. Changes in Strong Verbs..
4.5.5.3. Changes in Weak Verbs
4.5.5.4. Rise of Invariable Verbs
4.5.5.5. Changes in Preterite-Present Verbs..
4.5.5.6. Irregular Verbs..
4.6. New English Syntax...
4.7. New English Vocabulary Changes.
4.7.1. Latin Loanwords..
4.7.2. Latinization of French Loanwords...
4.7.3. Greek loanwords..
4.7.4. French Loanwords...
4.7.5. Mixed vocabulary of New English..
4.7.6. Italian and Spanish Loanwords
4.7.7. Russian Loanwords.
4.8. The Expansion of English..
4.9. The English Language in the USA
4.9.1. Some peculiarities of American Pronunciation...
4.9.2. American Spelling...
4.9.3. Some peculiarities of American Grammar..
4.9.4. Vocabulary of American English
Conclusion.
Bibliography..

 

 


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