Студопедия — Irony is a contrast between appearance and reality.
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Irony is a contrast between appearance and reality.

Situational irony is a form of irony that oc­curs when we expect one outcome but find that the opposite happens. An example of this sort of irony might involve a situation in which a wealthy old
woman promises her nephew that he will inherit her "greatest treasure" and, instead of a fortune, be­queaths him a pampered elderly cat.

Verbal irony occurs when someone says one thing but means the opposite. Verbal irony is usually humorous, but it can also make a serious point. In "The Open Window," for example, the narrator says that Vera began to speak to Framton "when she judged that they had had sufficient silent com­munion." This statement is ironic because it describes an awkward silence between two strangers as "silent communion" - something that happens only between close friends. The statement also makes an important point about each character: Framton is too wrapped up in his own ailments to notice the long pause while Vera has enough initiative to break it.



A. adherent [əd`hıərənt] adj. added shades of meaning

allegory [`ælıgərı] n. a story, poem, painting, etc. in which the characters and actions represent general truths, good and bad qualities, etc.

alliteration [ə,lıtə`reıſn] n. repetition of the same consonant or sound group at the beginning of two or more words that are close to each other

allusion [ə`lu:gn] n. reference to some literary, historical, mythological, biblical, etc. character or event commonly known

anaphora [ə`næfərə] n. repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or lines of verse

anticlimax [`æntı`klaıməks] n. a sudden drop from the dignified or important in thought or expression to the commonplace or trivial, sometimes for humorous effect

antithesis [ən`tıθəsıs] n. opposition or contrast of ideas, notions, qualities in the parts of one sentence or in different sentences

antonomasia [əntənə`meıſə] n. the use of a proper name in place of a common one or vice versa to emphasize some feature or quality

argot [`a:gou] n. the vocabulary peculiar to a particular class of people, esp. that of an underworld group devised for private communication

assonance [`æsənəns] n. 1. resemblance of sounds 2. partial rhyme created by the stressed vowel sounds

asyndeton [ə`sındətən] n. the omission of conjunctions

B. belles letters [`bel`letə] n. literature or writing about literary subjects

C. chiasmus [kaı`æzməs] n. inversion of the second of two parallel phrases or clauses

cliché [`klıſeı] n. an expression or idea that has become trite

climax [`klaıməks] n. a rhetorical series of ideas, images, etc. arranged progressively so that the most forceful is last

connotation [`konə`teıſn] n. idea or notion suggested by or associated with a word, phrase, etc. in addition to its denotation

connotative [kə`noutətıv] [`konə`teıtıv] adj. having connotations

convergence [kən`və:gəns] n. concentration of various devices and expressive means in one place to support an important idea and ensure the delivery o the message

couplet [`kaplət] n. two successive lines of poetry, esp. of the same length that rhyme

D. dactyl [`dæktıl] n. a metrical foot that consists of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented ones

denotative [dı`noutətıv] [dınou`teıtıv] adj. indicative of the direct explicit meaning or reference of a word or term

detachment [dı`tætſmənt] n. a seemingly independent part of a sentence that carries some additional information

device [dı`vaıs] n. a literary model intended to produce a particular effect in a work of literature

E. ellipsis [ə`lıpsıs] n. all sorts of omission in a sentence

emotive [ı`moutıv] adj. characterized by, expressing or producing emotion

empathy [`empəθı] n. ability to share in others’ emotions, thoughts of feelings

enumeration [ı,njume`reıſn] n. a device by means of which homogeneous parts of a sentence are made semantically heterogeneous

epiphora [ə`pıfərə] n. repetition of words or phrases at the end of consecutive clauses or phrases

epithet [`epıθət] n. an adjective or descriptive phrase used to characterize a person or object with the aim to give them subjective evaluation

euphonic [ju`fonık] adj. characterized by euphony

euphony [`jufənı] n. a harmonious combination of sounds that create a pleasing effect to the ear

evaluative [ı`væljueıtıv] adj. giving judgment about the value of something

explicit [ıks`plısıt] adj. clearly stated and leaving nothing implied

F. figure of speech n. a stylistic device of whatever kind, including tropes and syntactical expressive means

H. hyperbole [haı`pə:bolı] n. exaggeration for effect not to be taken literary

I. iambus [aı`æmbəs] n. a metrical foot, consisting of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented

idiolect [`ıdıoləkt] n. a particular person’s use of language, individual style of expression

imagery [`ımədgərı] n. ideas presented in a poetical form; figurative descriptions and figures of speech collectively

implicit [ımp`lısıt] adj. implied: suggested or to be understood though not plainly expressed

inherent [ın`hıərənt] adj. existing in something or someone as a permanent and inseparable element, quality or attribute

inversion [ın`və:ſn] n. a reversal of the normal order of words in a sentence

irony [`aırənı] n. a stylistic device in which the words express a meaning that is often the direct opposite of the intended meaning

J. jargon [`dga:gən] n. the language, esp. the vocabulary, peculiar to particular trade, profession or group

L. litotes [laı`toutı:s] n. understatement for effect, esp. that in which an affirmative is expressed by a negation of the contrary

M. malapropism [`mæləpropızəm] n. ludicrous misuse of words, esp. through confusion caused by resemblance in sound

meiosis [mı`ousıs] n. expressive understatement, litotes

metaphor [`metafo:] n. the application of a word or phrase to an object or concept it does not literally denote, in order to suggest comparison with another object or concept

metaphor sustained/extended a chain of metaphors containing the central image and some contributory images

meter [`mı:tə] n. rhythm in verse; measured patterned arrangement of syllables according to stress or length

metonymy [me`tonımı] n. transfer of name of one object to another to which it’s related / of which it’s part

O. onomatopoeia [,onəmətou`pı:ə] n. the formation of a word by imitating the natural sound; the use of words whose sounds reinforce their meaning or tone, esp. in poetry

oxymoron [,oksı`mo:rən] n. a figure of speech in which opposite or contradictory ideas are combined

P. parallelism [`pærələlızm] n. the use of identical or similar parallel syntactical structure in two or more sentences or their parts

paronomasia [,perənə`meıgə] n. using words similar in sound but different in meaning for euphonic effect

periphrasis [pe`rıfrəsıs] n. renaming of an object by a phrase that emphasizes some particular feature of the object

personage [`pə:sənədg] n. a character in a play or book, or in history

personification [pə,sonıfı`keıſn] n. the attribution of personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions

polysyndeton [polı`sındəton] n. the use of a number of conjunctions in close succession

prosody [`prosədı] n. 1. the science or art of versification, including the study of metrical structure, stanza form, etc. 2. the stress patterns of an utterance

publicist [`pablısıst] n. referring to writing and speaking on current public or political affairs

R. rhetoric [`retorık] n. 1. the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech 2. the art of using language effectively in speaking or writing 3. artificial eloquence

rhyme [raım] n. a regular recurrence of corresponding sounds at the ends of lines in verse

rhythm [rıðm] n. 1. a regular recurrence of elements in a system of motion: the rhythm of speech, dancing music, etc. 2. an effect of ordered movement in a work of art, literature, drama, etc. attained through patterns in the timing, spacing, repetition, accenting, etc. of the elements 3. in prosody: a metrical (feet) or rhythmical (iambus, trochee, etc.) form

S. simile [`sımılı] n. a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared by the use of like, as, resemble, etc.

suspense [səs`pens] n. a compositional device that consists in withholding the most important information or idea till the end of the sentence, passage or text

synecdoche [sı`nekdokı] n. a figure of speech based on transfer by contiguity in which a part is used for a whole, an individual for a class, a material for a thing or the reverse of any of these; a variety of metonymy

T. trope [troup] n. a figure of speech based on some kind of transfer of denomination

V. versification [,və,sıfı`keıſn] n. 1. the art, practice or theory of poetic composition 2. the form or style of a poem; metrical structure.

Z. zeugma [`zju:gmə] n. a figure of speech in which a single word, usually a verb or adjective, is syntactically related to two or more words, through having a different sense in relation to each.


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