Студопедия — MEDICAL SPECIALTIES AND SPECIALISTS 26 страница
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MEDICAL SPECIALTIES AND SPECIALISTS 26 страница






2. Maintenance of water balance.

3. Regulation of acid-base balance.

4. Production of hormones:

- renin ['rr.nin], which is important in the regulation of blood pressure;

-erythropoietin [i,ri9raupoi'i:tin], which stimulates the red bone marrow to produce red blood cells and thus prevents anemia.

Text E. Urine

The urine is a yellowish liquid that is about 95 per cent water and 5 per cent dissolved solids and gases. The amount of these dissolved elements is indicated by specific gravity. The urine has a specific gravity that normally varies from 1002 (very dilute urine) to 1040 (very concentrated urine). The normal substances, found during the test of the urine, are nitrogenous waste products, electrolytes, and yellow pigment.

Urine examination is one of the most important parts of an evaluation of a person's physical state. Here is a list of the most significant abnormal substances found in the urine:

1. Glucose (an indicator of diabetes mellitus). The presence of glucose in the urine is called glucosuria.

2. Albumin (indicates a kidney disorder). The presence of albumin in the urine is called albuminuria.

3. Blood (indicates nephritis or other urinary disorder). The blood in the urine is called hematuria.

4. Ketones are seen in diabetes mellitus or starvation.

5. Pus [pAs] (гній), white blood cells, is the evidence of infection. Pus in the urine is called pyuria.

6. Casts [ka:sts] (циліндри) indicate disease of nephrons.

Exercise 4. Read the meaning of the following clinical terms and answer the question: what is each of the disorders characterized by?

Glomerulonephritis - inflammation of the kidneys, primarily involving the glomerula; this disease causes destruction of the glomerular capillary walls; the complications are renal failure, retention of urea in the bloodstream (uremia).

Hydronephrosis - enlargement and distention (swelling) of the kidney due to block of urine outflow, caused by renal calculi, tumors, hypertrophy of prostate or narrowing (stricture) of the ureters.

Pyelitis - inflammation of a kidney pelvis.

Nephrolithiasis - the formation of renal calculi (stones) in the renal pelvis, which is followed by obstruction of the kidney, ureter, or bladder.

Pyelonephritis - bacterial infection of one or both kidneys usually involving both the pelvis and the functional tissue. Pyuria is found in urinalyses.

Polycystic kidney — the formation of numerous fluid-filled sacs upon and within the kidney.

Gout - a disease resulting from a disturbance of uric acid metabolism, characterized by an excess of uric acid in the blood and deposits of uric acid salts in various tissues, especially in the joints of the feet and hands: it causes swelling and severe pain, notably in the big toes.

 

Exercise 5. Tell about the body systems that have excretory functions.

Exercise 6. Describe the kidneys using this plan.

1. Location.

2. Form.

3. Structure.

4. Functions.

Exercise 7. Describe the nephron, use Fig. 25-3.

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions.

1. What are the functions of the urinary system?

2. What organs does the urinary system include?

3. How many parts does the kidney consist of?

4. What is the difference between the afferent and efferent arterioles?

5. What are pyramids and calyces in the kidney?

6. What is the unit of the kidney?

7. Where does the process of filtration and formation of the urine take place?

8. What is the characteristic of the urine?

9. What do we understand under the normal urine? Abnormal urine?

10. What disorders of the urinary system do you know?

 

II. Grammar Exercises

Exercise 1. Point out the suffixes and prefixes in the words and translate them into Ukrainian.

Experimental, transplantation, organic, inorganic, coagulation, miniature, metabolic, personally, mechanical, experiment, radioactivity, function, clinical, motherhood, leadership, capitalist, freedom, treatment, scientific, pressure, carelessness, infection, director, construction.

Exercise 2. Translate the following clinical terms.

Epidemics, asthma, sclerosis, pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, pathology, pulmonologist, urgent, allergy, infection, traumatism.

Exercise 3. Remember the degrees of comparison of adjectives, translate the following sentences.

1. The earlier the diagnosis, the greater likelihood of cure. 2. The smaller the loss, the quicker the patient recovers. 3. The more primitive organism, the greater its regeneration ability. 4. The sooner the patient is operated on, the better for him. 5. The larger the heart, the lower the position which it occupies in the thorax. 6. The more fresh air, the better for patients.

Exercise 4. Define participial and gerundial complexes, translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Being very tired, he refused to fulfill this task. 2. By entering the brain or spinal cord, neurosurgeons are successfully doing away with disorders. 3. He proposed methods of applying local novocaine anesthesia during operations. 4. This man was discharged from the hospital completely cured, having stayed there 20 days. 5. The doctor examining the patient revealed his heart trouble. 6. They have learned the methods of examining a patient. 7. The examination of the patients having been completed, the nurses began to fulfill the doctor's prescriptions. 8. The doctor having used a new method of treatment was known to us.

Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences.

1.1 should have missed the lecture if...

2. If 1 were you...

3. If my mother were a teacher...

4. If I had money about me...

5. If we had spare time...

6. If it had been warm yesterday...

 

Exercise 6. Make up sentences using the tables.


a)

If I were you, But for him But for them


I

he you they we


go for a walk, travel to the Crimea, stay in bed. consult a doctor, visit a good specialist.


b)


 

 

If


you she we thev


 

 

were you,


you she we they


 

 

should/would


prescribe other drugs, go to the urologist, give another treatment, become a surgeon, give another diagnosis.


 

Exercise 7. Translate into English.

1. На вашому місці я негайно звернувся б до уролога. 2. Якби в мене були гроші, я придбав би цей фонендоскоп. 3. Якби мій брат вмів плавати, ми ходили б у басейн щодня. 4. Я запізнився б на засідання, якби не взяв таксі. 5. Якби в мене був час минулого тижня, я поїхав би на екскурсію до Львова.

III. Independent Work: Organism as a Whole

Exercise 1. Read the text and try to understand it without using a dictionary.

 

Organism as a Whole

The organism is a single system. In a complex organism cells and intercellular substance form tissues, tissues make up organs, and organs unite in systems. All the cells, tissues, organs and systems of organs are closely interconnected and affect each other.

The vital activities of the cells, tissues, organs and the whole organism are based on metabolism which consists of two interconnected processes: assimilation of nutritive substances (anabolism) and decomposition of organic substances (catabolism).

The complex substances of the cells and tissues continuously split into simpler ones: at the same time they are renewed from other substances delivered to the cells and tissues from outside. The catabolism in the cells and tissues is accompanied by liberation of energy which operates all the processes in the organs and tissues (muscular contraction, heart action, cerebral activity, etc.) including anabolism.

During the vital activities of the organism, which are based on metabolism, various organs and systems of organs establish close connections and interactions. This may be readily demonstrated on a skeletal muscle. Metabolism takes place in the muscle, as it does in other organs. This naturally requires a continuous supply of nutrients and oxygen which are delivered by the blood through the blood vessels. The nutrients enter the blood from the digestive system, and the oxygen from the respiratory system (through the lungs). The waste products formed in the process of metabolism pass from the muscles into the blood and are transported to the excretory organs and eliminated. The blood flows through the blood vessels because of the contractions of the heart whose work, like that of other organs, is regulated by the nervous system.

The regulations between the various systems of organs can also be demonstrated by coordinated changes in their activities. Intensification of the activity of one organ or system of organs is accompanied by changes in the other system. For example, physical work causes metabolism to increase sharply in the muscles.

This leads to a coordinated change in the activity of the cardiovascular, respiratory, excretory and other systems.

The interdependence between the various organs and the entire organism manifests itself in a disease. Pathologic changes in one particular organ affect other systems of organs. The principle of intergrity of the organism implies that the disease of any organ must not be regarded as a purely local disturbance, but as a morbid state of the entire organism.

 

Exercise 2. Ask 10 questions based on the text.

UNIT TWENTY-SIX

 

I Speaking Female Reproductive System
II Grammar Conjuction (§113)
III Independent Work Mother and Child Health

 

I. Speaking: Female Reproductive System

After careful study of this unit you should be able to:

- name the female reproductive organs;

- state the purpose of meiosis;

- name female sex hormones;

- define the menstrual cycle;

- list disorders of the female reproductive organs;

- describe fertilization;

- explain the function of the placenta;

- briefly describe the four stages of labor (childbirth);

- tell about menopause.

 

Exercise 1. Read and learn the following words and their equivalents.

 

English Latin/Greek Ukrainian
ovary ['auvari] ovarium/oophor- яєчник
follicle ['fblikl] folliculus фолікул
uterine tube [ ju:tsrain] tuba uterina маткова труба
uterus [juitares] uterus/metr-, hyster- матка
ovum ['aovsm] (pi. ova) ovum, ova яйцеклітина
corpus luteum ['luitism] corpus luteum жовте тіло
vagina [va'djains] vagina/colp(o)- піхва
epoophoron [,eprj'o:f3ron] epoophoron над'яєчник
paroophoron [,paro'o:forrm] paroophoron прияєчник
clitoris ['klitsris] clitoris клітор
perineum [^регі'пкзт] perineum промежина
external genital ['djenitsl] female organs (vulva)['vAlvs] organa genitalia feminina externa, vulva/episio- зовнішні статеві органи жінки
embryo ['embriau] embryon зародок
fetus ['fhtss] fetus плід
fertilization [,f3:tilai'zeijh] fertilizatio запліднення
breasts ['brests] mammae/mast- молочні залози
the neck of uterus collum uteri шийка матки
endometrium [.endsu'mhtriam] endometrium внутрішня слизова оболонка матки, ендометрій
English Latin/Greek Ukrainian  
menstruation mensis менструація  
placenta placenta плацента  
menopause ['mensopo:z] menopausa менопауза  
abortion [a;'bo:Jh] abortus викидень  
labor ['leibs], delivery partus пологи  
pregnancy ['pregnansi] graviditas вагітність  
           

Exercise 2. Learn the following clinical terms.

Leukorrhea [,1и:кз'гі:з] is a white or yellowish vaginal discharge, sign of irritation or infection.

Amenorrhea [ае,тзпз'гі:з] is the absense of menstrual flow. Dismenorrhea [dis.mans'ria] is painful or difficult menstruation.

Cancer of breasts, cancer of endometrium, cancer of ovaries, cancer of cervix are common malignant tumors of the female reproductive organs.

The infectious diseases of the female sex organs are salpingitis (inflammation of the uterine tubes); pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) may be caused by gonorrhea or bacteria; toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious bacterial infection usually due to certain staphylococci.

Infertility [,inf3:'tibti] is the decreased ability to reproduce. Infertility in women, as it is in men, may be relative or absolute.

Exercise 3. Look at Fig. 26-1 and find the main female reproductive organs: external, internal, accessory.

Exercise 4. Read the text, translate it.

One of the most interesting and mysterious attributes of life is the ability to reproduce. In people reproduction is sexual. It means that males and females have specialized cells known a^ germ [d33:m] cells, or gametes [gae'mi:ts]. In males they are called spermatozoa and in female they are called ova. Germ cells are characterized by having half as many chromosomes as are found in any other cell in the body. During their formation they go through a special process of cell division, called meiosis [mai'ausis], that in humans reduces the chromosome number from 46 to 23. The female reproductive system consists of organs which produce ova and provide a place for the growth of the embryo.

Ova are produced by the ovary from the puberty period to menopause (end of the fertile period in women). Release of an ovum from the graafian follicle of the ovary into the fallopian tube is called ovulation. Besides the ovaries the major organs of the female reproducrive system include the fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina and vulva.

Vulva is the external genitalia, it includes the vaginal lips, clitoris and vaginal and urethral orifices. The space between the vaginal orifice and the anus is called perineum.

Breasts also belong to the reproductive system, as they are milk-producing glands which consist of lactiferous ducts and sinuses, carrying milk to the nipple.

In the female, as in the male, reproductive function is controlled by hormones from pituitary gland as regulated by the hypothalamus. Female activity is cyclic, that is, shows regular periods of increases and decreases in hormone levels. The length of the menstrual cycle varies between 22 and 45 days. The duration of menstrual flow is 2 to 6 days.


Estrogen [ 'estradjan], progesterone [ргз 'dpstsrsun] are two female sex hormones. Estrogen promotes development of the uterine lining and maintains secondary sex characterics.

Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum and placenta; maintains the lining of the uterus for pregnancy.

When semen is deposited in the vagina, many spermatozoa immediately wriggle about in all directions. When a spermatozoon encounters an ovum, it can penetrate the cell membrane of the ovum. The result of this union is fertilization.

The placenta is the sponge-like vascular organ. It develops during pregnancy in the uterine wall, and the fetus grows in it up to the parturition [,pa:tjo'rijn] or delivery.

Menopause is the cessation of menstruation. It is often called change of life. It occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, and is caused by a normal decline in ovarian function.

 

Exercise 5. a) Title the text.

b) Divide the text into independent passages, title each making a plan of the text.

 

Exercise 6. Match the synonyms and synonymous expressions from a) and b).

a) Delivery, female, mammary glands, a pair, pathway, childbirth, work.

b) Duct, breasts, woman, labor, couple, parturition, confinement.

 

Exercise 7. Answer the following questions.


1)
What cells are gametes?

2) What are they in males and females?


3) What does meiosis mean?

4) What does the female reproductive system include?

5) What is ovulation?

6) Can you name external female sex organs?

7) Where is the perineum located?

8) What is the function of breasts in women?

9) What can you say about the menstrual cycle?

 

10) Do you know anything about female sex hormones?

11) Can you describe the process of fertilization?

12) Is the placenta also an organ?

13) What is menopause?

Exercise 8. Look at Fig. 26-2 and speak of pregnancy physiology.

 

II. Grammar Exercises

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with the names of diseases given below.

1. In Middle Ages many people suffered from.... 2. In my childhood I had...,...,.... 3. These patients are ill with.... 4. The doctor diagnosed the case as.... 5. He often has.... 6. The doctor says that he is ill with... 7. His father died of.... 8. I suppose that she suffers from....

(bronchitis, cancer, chickenpox, scarlet fever, mumps, dysentery, rheumatism, tuberculosis, pneumonia, quinsy)

Exercise 2. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. The earlier the diagnosis is made, the simpler and more conservative successful treatment is. 2. The sicker the patient with a fractured hip is, the sooner surgery should be carried out. 3. The better the condition of the patient and the younger he is, the greater the delay that may be accepted before surgery. 4. The higher the pressure in relation to cardiac output, the more severe the stenosis. 5. The older a person becomes, the more likely he is to develop cancer. 6. The more tender the place on the body where the disease attacks, the severer aggravation is. 7. The greater conductivity a substance has, the less is its resistance.

Exercise 3. Translate the sentences. Find complexes with infinitives, gerunds or participles and name them.

1. They are brilliant scientists fighting against heart diseases. 2. The human brain has a wonderful capacity for compensating disrupted functions. 3. Being on a sick-leave, the patient was following a strict bed rest regime. 4. Before starting to examine the patients the doctor puts on his while overall. 5. These students have acquainted themselves with the main rules of carrying out an examination. 6. Having investigated the patient's past history, the physicians came to a conclusion that the patient was sensitive to antibiotics. 7. The new equipment having been received, we began our experiments. 8. His being sent to London was very important for his work. 9. To get a clear picture of the illness a contrasting substance is introduced into the patient's carotid artery. 10. We know him to be operated on in our clinic. 11. He is supposed to have been discharged from the hospital. 12. They seem to have been treated, using this new method. 13. These devices are considered to be very effective.

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

1. Лікар зробив операцію і вона була успішною. 2. Пацієнт випив ліки, але температура була така ж сама. 3. Ні лікар, ні медсестра не повинні робити помилок у своїй роботі. 4. Ми бачили її вчора в операційній, коли вона допомагала хірургу. 5. Якщо все буде гаразд, його випишуть з лікарні через кілька днів. 6. Медсестра дала хірургу скальпель, і він розпочав складну операцію.

 

III. Independent Work: Mother and Child Health

Exercise 1. Read the text and retell it.

Mother and Child Health

Specialized medical care is given to the baby beginning with its first day of life at in­patient and polyclinic establishments for children. A special obstetrical-gynecological1 and pediatric service has been established in Ukraine.

Specialized medical establishments provide appropriate care2 for future mothers and newborns through diagnostic and preventive-cure measures' to help women overcome different disorders4 and prevent them from affecting the progeny5.

Women who suffer, for instance, from heart defects are placed, at the time of pregnancy6 and during delivery7, under the observation of obstetricians, therapeutists, immunologists, hematologists.

Thanks to timely medical care and availability8 of specific instrumentation and equipment at our hospitals, the women who suffer from such ailments9 go through pregnancy and delivery successfully. All mother and child health advisory centers conduct disease prevention and cure work.

Our medical science devotes much attention to the health of mother and child.

At present there are some research institutes for pediatrics, obstetrics, gynecology and mother and child care in Ukraine. Their research and methods of treatment help to control infantile infectious diseases. This comes from the tremendous efforts of our scientists.

Our medical science pays utmost attention to the health of mother and child.

Notes:

1obstetrical-gynecological - акушерсько-гінекологічний

2appropriate care - належне піклування

1 preventive-cure measures - лікувально-профілактичні заходи

4disorder [dis'o:da] розлад, хвороба

5progeny [prDa^ini] потомство

" pregnancy ['pregnansi] вагітність

7delivery [di'livary] пологи

8availability - наявність

9ailment ['eilmsnt] хвороба

Exercise 2. Make up a plan of the text. Exercise 3. Ask 10 questions based on the text.

UNIT TWENTY-EIGHT

 

I Speaking Duties of a Midwife
II Independent Work Risk of Having Children in Later Life

 

I. Speaking: Duties of a Midwife

Exercise 1. Learn the topical word combinations.

The duties of a midwife:

* to be responsible for her doings;

* to give first aid;

* to help the gynecologist;

* to prepare instruments for examination of women;

* to measure pregnant women;

* to do all prescriptions of the doctor;

* to observe and take care of pregnant women, women in childbirth and women after delivery.

Exercise 2. Pay attention that obstetricians can work at:

* the female (prenatal) department (жіноча консультація);

* the maternity home/hospital (пологовий будинок);

* feidsher-midwife stations (ФАП);

* prophylactic centers of large facilities (factories, plants, etc.). Exercise 3. Translate into English.

Я хочу стати хорошим акушером. Ця професія необхідна, почесна і важлива для продовження людства. На мою думку, акушерка повинна бути доброю, уважною, милосердною, рішучою, діяти спокійно і розсудливо. Акушерка повинна мати достатньо знань щодо своєї роботи. Вона повинна вміти приготувати інструменти для обстеження жінок, обстежувати та вимірювати таз вагітної, надавати медичку допомогу, виконувати вказівки гінеколога та лікарів, здійснювати догляд за вагітною, роділлею і породіллею, проводити санітарно-просвітницьку роботу.

 

Exercise 4. Read the interview.

 

Nicky Cox

-What do you enjoy about being a community midwife?

- The job has great highs. After I have delivered a baby, I often feel elated. I've smiled to myself many occasions and thought, "And I'm getting paid to do this!" It has its downsides too, though. When a birth doesn't go to plan, say, it is very prolonged and the heart monitor shows the baby is in distress, it can be very stressful. And of course - very, very rarely, thankfully when there is a stillbirth or a baby is born with a deformity, it makes you feel awful for days or even weeks.

- What are the qualities of a good midwife?

- Number one is people skills. Of course you need a lot of knowledge, but perhaps more than any other nursing job, a midwife must be good at getting on with people. When a woman gives birth, she feels very vulnerable and at the same time, it is an intensely personal experience you are sharing with her. I try to develop a strong relationship with my mothers during pregnancy when they come for their ultrasounds and physical examinations.

- What are your views on a natural birth at home?

- It's all about choosing the right type of birth for you. I think giving birth without pain-controlling drugs in the comfort and familiar surroundings of your own home can be a wonderful experience. But my job is to explain objectively to each woman her options and let her decide. I run a weekly antenatal class for parents-to-be in which I explain the ins and outs of hospital birth, home birth, and water birth, as well as covering issues such as breastfeeding, the mother's diet during pregnancy, and how the father can help during labor.

Exercise 5. Answer the questions.

- When does Nicky feel extremely happy?

- What makes her feel awful?

- In what ways does Nicky prepare women for birth in her weekly antenatal classes?

Exercise 6. Discuss with a partner whether you would like to do Nicky's job. Explain your reasons.

 

II. Independent Work: Risk of Having Children in Later Life

Exercise 1. Read the text.

Over the past 50 years or so possibilities for controlling fertility have grown. These changes began with the introduction of oral contraception and have continued with the legalization of induced abortions. On the other hand the development of more and more sophisticated techniques of in vitro fertilization and advances in obstetrics enhance fertility and ensure safe deliveries in older women, thus giving them a chance to become mothers at a middle age.

But according to the findings of many obstetricians-gynecologists an older age strongly increases the risk of at least three untoward outcomes — namely, stillbirth, miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Maternal age has an impact on other aspects of reproduction. Among those that are usually recorded are multiple births and congenital malformations.

When birth defects are considered, older women have a consistently increased risk for Down's syndrome, which is less of a hazard now than it was, owing to the advent of prenatal screening. Certain rare disorders are more common among births to older fathers. Some of them that are thought to be new mutations are detectable in offspring only later in life, schizophrenia is one example.

Information on parental age and possible unfavorable outcome is important in counseling prospective parents. But after potential parents have weighed the age factor in terms of conceiving and carrying a pregnancy to the end, they might be glad to know that a child born to older parents does have advantages. In some studies such children do better at school than those of very young parents. In the difficult task of raising children older parents may be less healthy than younger ones, but their experience and knowledge are almost always greater, their economic situation is better, and they can give to the child a more stable rear. Biological disadvantages are to some degree balanced by social advantages.

From British Medical Journal 2000

 

Exercise 2. Write a summary of the text.

 

 

UNIT TWENTY-NINE

 

I Speaking Pregnancy
II Independent Work New Techniques Help Childless Couples - Even after Menopause

 

I. Speaking: Pregnancy

 

Exercise 1. Learn the topical words.







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