Студопедия — MEDICAL SPECIALTIES AND SPECIALISTS 27 страница
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MEDICAL SPECIALTIES AND SPECIALISTS 27 страница






condition - стан

exist - існувати, бути, жити

egg, egg cell - яйцеклітина

to fertilize - запліднювати

a missed menstrual period - припинення менструації notice - помічати, відзначати sickness - нудота

trimester - триместр, тримісячний термін experience - відчувати, почувати nipple - сосок

enlarge - збільшуватися, розширюватися waistline - талія

expand - розширятися, розтягуватися apparent - видимий cumbersome - обтяжливий tired - втомлений

 

Exercise 2. Read the text.

 

Pregnancy

 

Pregnancy is the condition that exists in a woman between the time when one of her eggs s fertilized by a sperm and the time when her child is born.

Symptoms

Usually the first symptom noticed by a pregnant woman is a missed menstrual period. Nausea and vomiting ("morning sickness") are also common symptoms of pregnancy.

The nine months of pregnancy are usually thought of medically as three three-month periods, or trimesters. During the first trimester, the woman may experience nausea and vomiting, her breasts and nipples will become enlarged, and her waistline may expand.

In the second trimester, the uterus expands, abdominal enlargement becomes more apparent, and the woman can feel the fetus move. Many women feel their best during this trimester.

During the last three months, pregnancy tends to become a more cumbersome condition, and the woman may feel tired much of the time. The fetus often "drops" lower in the uterus in the last month.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

1. What is pregnancy?

2. What is the first symptom of pregnancy?

3. What are also common symptoms of pregnancy?

4. What does the word "trimester" mean?

5. What changes take place in woman's body during the first (second, third) trimester?

6. When does the fetus "drop" lower in the uterus?

 

Exercise 4. Unite the words into groups - nouns, adjectives, verbs.

Pregnancy, pregnant, fertilize, fertilization, sick, sickness, enlarge, enlargement, tired, tiredness, delivery, deliver, fertility.

Exercise 5. Without looking at the text, tick (v) the things you think are safe in pregnancy. Put a cross (x) next to the things you think are not safe, and a question mark (?) if it depends on the situation. Compare your answers with your partner's.

Your opinion Advice in the text

1 a lot of calcium

2 a lot of tuna

3 folic acid tablets

4 four cups of tea a day

5 gardening

6 hard cheese, such as cheddar

7 herbal medicines

8 immunization against chickenpox

9 one small glass of red wine a day

Exercise 6. Read the text and put a tick, a cross, or a question mark concerning the advice it gives.

Most pregnancies go well and without any major problems. But it is wise to reduce any risks as much as possible. So, a reminder of things to consider before becoming pregnant, or as soon as you realize that you are pregnant...

DO

- take foiic acid tablets before you get pregnant until 12 weeks of pregnancy;

- have a blood test to check if you are immune to rubella and to screen for hepatitis B, syphilis, and HIV. Ask your practice nurse to do this;

- eat a healthy diet. Include foods rich in iron, calcium, and folic acid;

- wash your hands after handling raw meat;

- wear gloves when you are gardening. AVOID

- eating undercooked meat or eggs, soft cheese, pate, shellfish, raw fish, or unpasteurized milk;

- fish which may contain a lot of mercury - shark, marlin, swordfish, or excess tuna;

- cat feces, which may carry certain infections, such as toxoplasmosis;

- peanuts - if you have a personal or family history of eczema, hay fever or asthma;

- too much caffeine in tea, coffee, cola, etc. Have no more than 300 mg per day. This is in about three cups of brewed coffee, or four cups of instant coffee, or six cups of tea.

STOP

- drinking alcohol - you are strongly advised not to drink at all;

- smoking - you are strongly advised to stop completely;

 

- using street drugs - you are strongly advised to stop completely. THINK ABOUT

- immunization against hepatitis В if you are at increased risk of getting this infection;

- immunization against chickenpox if you are a healthcare worker and have not previously had chickenpox and so are not immune;

- whether to continue with herbal and over-the-counter medicines;

- your work environment - is it safe?

- medical conditions in yourself, or conditions which run in your family.

Exercise 7. Find words in the text that match the definitions:

- a liver disease;

- two sexually transmitted diseases;

- a metal that is poisonous in large amounts;

- three conditions caused by allergy;

- illegal drugs;

- drugs sold in a chemist's.

Exercise 8. Discuss the questions with a partner.

- Did any of the pieces of advice surprise you?

- Do you know of any other advice that is not included here?

- In your country, what foods do pregnant women eat to help their baby develop healthily?

The other report issued last week focuses attention on the Fallopian tubes, the narrow passages that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. Women whose tubes are clogged with scar tissue or other obstructions cannot conceive by natural means because their eggs have no way of getting to the womb. In the past, such women had to undergo surgery to have their tubes cleared. Now the problem can be overcome in a doctor's office, according to an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association. With a tiny balloon similar to those used to clear blocked arteries, scientists were able to unclog the Fallopian tubes in 64 of 77 women, 22 became pregnant within a year. Dr. Edmond Confino, who pioneered the technique at Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Center in Chicago, estimates that it could help nearly one third of the 1 million American women who suffer from blocked tubes.

The new methods join an array of novel techniques that seem to multiply faster than test-tube babies. Most are variations on the pioneering procedure known an in vitro fertilization. In IVF, eggs are removed from the ovaries, mixed with sperm in a laboratory dish, allowed to develop into embryos and then inserted into the uterus. But even at well-run clinics, the original IVF procedure fails 75 % to 85 % of the time. The biggest snag comes when the embryo is inserted in the uterus, an operation that can be very disruptive to the womb. As a result, such embryos often fail to take root, or implant. To increase the chances of implantation, many doctors are now inserting egg and sperm into the Fallopian tube, a procedure known as GIFT (for gamete intra-fallopian transfer). Fertilization takes place not in a laboratory dish but in the Fallopian tube, as it would naturally, and the resulting embryo drifts gently into the uterus, where it is much more likely to be successfully received. In yet another variation, called ZIFT (for zygote intra-fallopian transfer), the sperm are allowed to fertilize the eggs before transfer to the Fallopian tube. The advantage: only those eggs that are successfully fertilized need be transferred. GIFT and ZIFT have turned out to be breakthrough procedures. Some doctors who have switched from standard IVF to the new techniques have doubled their success rates, which now approach 50 %. As the odds have improved, the demand for IVF has surged, despite the high cost (up to $ 8,000 a try) and the uneven quality of the clinics offering the service.

 

Exercise 3. Describe the way IVF is performed.

 

Exercise 4. Express your own attitude towards the problem of test-tube babies.

Exercise 5. Choose English equivalents of the Ukrainian words.

1) Майбутні батьки; 2) першокласні клініки; 3) перепона; 4) незважаючи на велику вартість; 5) найбільша перепона (труднощі); 6) зморщуватися/усихати, як родзинки; 7) укорінюватися, приживлятися; 8) у однієї був викидень; 9) мертвонароджена дитина; 10) робити продування (чистку) труб.

(а - the hitch; b-to take root; c- one miscarried; d-to shrivel like raisins; e-a stillborn baby; f - well-run clinics; g- to have tubes cleared; h - despite the high cost; і - the biggest ••nag; j - would-be parents)

Exercise 6. Choose antonyms of the words.

1) Fertility; 2) in vitro; 3) menopause; 4) to fail; 5) to insert; 6) to increase.

(a - menarche; b-to succeed; c-to withdraw; d-to decrease; e - in vivo; f— infertility)

4. Can additional weight cause some problems?

5. Can a woman participate in most activities and sports she was taking part in before her pregnancy?

6. Who can advise her about any limitations?

 

II. Independent Work: Miscarriage

Exercise 1. Read the text.

...That night Clare woke with a pain in her back. When she looked she saw there was some vaginal bleeding. Graham telephoned Mr. O'Rory. Then he carried her outside in a blanket, and drove her 10 miles to the hospital. The gynecologist was already waiting. He put Clare into his ward, surrounded her with hot-water bottles, ordered an injection of morphine, prescribed doses of bromide and added well-polished encouraging words.

"Is she aborting?" asked Graham outside the ward.

"Well, it's an abortion," Mr. O'Rory said amiably. "It's just eight weeks since the lady's last menstrual period. So it wouldn't be an unheard occurrence at such a time, would if?" "Could anything have caused it?" Graham asked anxiously.

"Oh. these things happen, they just happen. To tell the truth, none of us knows really

why."

"What's the chance of saving the fetus?"

"I'd say quite good. There's nothing to worry about, nothing at all."...The bleeding went on. The following day Mr. O'Rory shook his head and said he feared the lady must visit his operating room.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions.

1. Why did Clare wake up?

2. Where did Graham drive her?

3. What did the gynecologist do?

4. Could anything have caused an abortion?

5. What did Mr. O'Rory say the following day?

 

 

UNIT THIRTY-ONE

 

I 1 Speaking ________________________ I Precautions

 

I. Speaking: Precautions

Exercise 1. Learn the topical words, substance - речовина

find (found, found) - знаходити; установлювати; виявляти affect - впливати


survival - виживання

birth defects - вроджені вади

to be related (to) - бути пов'язаним (з)

vitamin deficiency - вітамінодефіцит, авітаміноз

cause - бути причиною, спричиняти

interaction - взаємодія

inherit - успадковувати

beware - остерігатися

hazard - ризик, небезпека

safety - безпека

safe - безпечний

medication - засіб для лікування

approval - схвалення, згода

 

Exercise 2. Read the text.

 

Precautions

Many substances and organisms have been found to affect the development and survival of the fetus. It is estimated that 20 percent of all birth defects are directly related to environmental factors such as drugs, viruses, and vitamin deficiencies. Another 60 percent are caused by the interaction of an environmental factor and an inherited predisposition. So it is important for every woman who is contemplating pregnancy or is already pregnant to beware of the possible hazards to which her baby may be vulnerable.

One of the most important aspects of prenatal care is safety in the use of medications and the ingestion of nonfood substances. A pregnant woman (or one who even suspects she is pregnant) should never take a medication without her doctor's recommendation or approval. This caution includes over-the-counter preparations - even aspirin - as well as prescription drugs. In addition, a woman should not smoke during pregnancy, and she should limit, if not eliminate, consumption of alcoholic beverages. Smoking has been linked to miscarriage (expulsion of the fetus before it is capable of surviving on its own), low birth weight, and prematurity. Alcohol, too, has been linked to miscarriage, and studies have shown that alcoho. can affect the brain of the fetus. Products containing caffeine should probably also be limited The best guideline to remember is that no drug or nonfood substance can be assumed to be harmless during pregnancy.

The fetus is also susceptible to infections that affect the mother-to-be, especially rubella (German measles) and certain sexually transmitted diseases, such as herpes. A pregnant woman should avoid immunizations with live viruses and postpone travel to foreign countries where infectious diseases are prevalent. Toxoplasmosis, an infection spread by eating or preparing uncooked meat or handling a cat's litter box, presents another risk. The parasite that cause^ toxoplasmosis is harbored in the bodies of some food animals (pigs, sheep, and cattle) and in the intestinal tracts of cats. A pregnant woman need not forgo meat or get rid of her cat. She should, however, be certain to cook meat thoroughly and to avoid emptying or cleaning the cat's litter box.

A woman's doctor will also advise against unnecessary X-rays during pregnancy.

As the medical profession has learned more about inherited diseases, it has been able to offer genetic counseling to couples concerned about the possibility of having a child with an inherited disease or abnormality. A genetic counselor or specialist in genetic disorders can estimate the likelihood that a couple's offspring will be afflicted with a problem due to an inherited trait or to the age of the parents. For some genetic disorders, tests can determine whether one or both parents are carriers or can detect whether a defect is present in a fetus. However, genetic counseling cannot guarantee the health of a child; it can only be a source of advice.

Notes:

it is estimated - приблизно підраховано inherited predisposition - спадкова схильність contemplate - обдумувати; мати намір to be vulnerable - бути вразливим ingestion - ковтання, поглинання

 

Exercise 3. Make a list of precautions for pregnant women.

 

UNIT THIRTY-TWO

 

I Speaking Fetus
II Independent Work Premature Delivery

 

I. Speaking: Fetus

 

Exercise 1. Learn the topical words, individual - індивід, особа organ systems - системи органів continue - продовжувати(ся)

mature - достигати, доходити зрілості, наставати (про строк) divide - ділити(ся) equal - рівний, однаковий grow - рости

growth - ріст, зростання; розвиток

external genitalia - зовнішні статеві органи

sufficiently - достатньо

weigh - важити, мати вагу

weight - вага

length - довжина

vary - різнитися, мінятися

occur - траплятися, відбуватися

reveal - відкривати(ся), виявляти, показувати

sex - стать

Exercise 2. Read the text.

 

Fetus

The term fetus is used for the developing individual from the beginning of the third month of pregnancy until birth. During this period the organ systems continue to grow and mature. For study, pregnancy may be divided into three equal segments or trimesters. The most rapid growth occurs during the second trimester (months 4-6). By the end of the fourth month, the fetus is almost 15 cm long, and its external genitalia are sufficiently developed to reveal its sex. By the seventh month, the fetus is usually about 35 cm long and weighs about 1.1 kg. At the end of pregnancy, the normal length of the fetus is 45 cm to 56 cm, and the weight varies from 2.7 kg to 4.5 kg.

Exercise 3. Find English equivalents.

Від початку третього місяця до народження; системи органів продовжують рости; найшвидший ріст; до кінця; плід майже 15 см у довжину; достатньо розвинуті; визначити його стать; в кінці вагітності.

Exercise 4. Answer the questions:

1. When is the term fetus used?

2. Do the organ systems continue to grow and mature during this period?

3. How may pregnancy be divided for study?

4. When does the most rapid growth occur?

5. When can fetal sex be revealed?

6. What is the normal weight (length) of the fetus at the end of pregnancy? Exercise 5. Read the text and the dialog after it.

Use of Ultrasound

A valuable diagnostic tool that avoids the use of undesirable X-rays is a form of vibrational energy called ultrasound. By this method soft tissues can be visualized and such abnormalities as ectopic pregnancies and placenta previa can be accurately delineated. The relatively inexpensive ultrasound equipment has been found useful in detecting abnormalities of the fetus as well as tumors and other disorders of the reproductive system.

N — nurse, M - Mrs Murphy

N: OK, Mrs Murphy, just lie back on this examination table. Are you comfortable? M: Yes, thank you.

N: Have you had plenty of water to drink? M: Yes - three glasses.

N: Good, we need your bladder full. I'm putting some gel onto your abdomen. That helps the ultrasound work well. M: OK.

N: Your notes say the baby has stopped moving. Is that right?

M: Yes, I'm a bit worried.

N: And you're in the twenty-second week of your pregnancy? M: Yes.

N: Right. Well the ultrasound scan is very simple. When I pass the transducer over your abdomen, it bounces sound waves off the baby's body and it makes a picture here on the monitor. Then we can see if there is anything wrong. It shows up any abnormalities. A scan can usually show if the baby is a boy or a girl. Do you want to know the baby's sex?

M: Yes please.

N: OK. I'm passing the transducer over your abdomen now. Ah, here we are. There's the baby. Can you see it?

M: It's not very clear.

N: Well, here's the head. Can you see that?

N: And there's a hand. Five fingers. And there's a foot - can you see? M: Yes.

N: Can you see the heart beating? The baby's alive and looks good. Yes, everything is normal. And look - a penis. It's a boy. M: Really? I wanted a girl.

N: You did? Just a moment! Well you're not going to be disappointed - you're going to have twins - a boy and a girl.

 

Exercise 6. Act out the dialog.

 

II. Independent Work: Premature Delivery

Exercise 1. Read the text.

Elizabeth put the vacuum cleaner away and began to move around the apartment, tidying and dusting. She was about to cross to the tiny kitchen when the pain struck her. It came suddenly, without warning, like a fire, and worse, much worse, than the day before in the hospital cafeteria. Drawing in her breath, biting her lip, trying not to scream aloud, Elizabeth sank into a chair behind her. Briefly the pain went away, then it returned, even - it seemed -more intensely, it was as if it were a cycle. Then the significance struck her. Involuntarily she said, "Oh, no! No!"

The hospital number was by the telephone. Having a rest between each onset of pain, grasping the table for support, Elizabeth dialed and when a voice answered, she said, breathlessly, "Dr. Dornberger, please, it's urgent".

There was a pause and he came on the line. "It's Mrs. Alexander." Elizabeth said. "I've started... to have my baby."

...A policeman on duty heard the ambulance's siren six blocks away. Inside, Elizabeth was only dimly conscious of their progress through the busy streets. For an instant between each onset of pain she could see the driver up ahead. All Elizabeth could think through the miasma that engulfed her, was: "My baby - he'll be born too soon! He will die! Oh, God, don't let him die! Not this time! Not again!"

...In the room which the hospital staff jokingly called "the expectant fathers' sweatbox" John Alexander put a half-smoked cigarette into an ashtray. He glanced at his watch. He saw that it was an hour and three quarters since he had come here, surely soon there must be some news. He wished he had seen Elizabeth before she had gone into the delivery room, but everything had happened so quickly that there had been no time.

Now the door from the corridor opened, and this time it was Dr. Dornberger. From his face John tried to read the news, but without success. He asked, "You are John?"

"Yes, sir." Though he had seen the elderly obstetrician several times in the hospital, this was the first time they had spoken to each other.

"Your wife will be all right," Dornberger said without preliminaries.

John's first impression was of overwhelming relief. Then he asked, "And the baby?"

Dornberger said quietly, "You have a boy. He was premature, of course, and I have to tell you, John - he is very weak."

"Will he live?" Only when he asked the question did it occur to him how important for him was the answer.

Dornberger had taken out his pipe and was filling it. He said evenly. "Let's say the chances are not as good as if he had come to full term. As far as I can tell you have a 32-week baby; that means he was born eight weeks early." Compassionately he added, "He wasn't ready for the world, John. None of us are so soon."

"No, I suppose not." John was hardly conscious of speaking.

"Your baby's birth weight was three pounds eight ounces. Perhaps that will mean more if I tell you that nowadays we consider any baby less than five pounds eight ounces at birth to be premature."

"I see."

"We have the baby in an incubator, of course. Naturally, we'll do our best." John looked at the obstetrician directly. "Then there is hope."

"There's always hope, son," Dornberger said quietly. "When we haven't much else, there's always hope."

There was a pause, then John asked, "May I see my wife now?" "Yes." Dornberger said. "I'll come to the nursing station with you."

Exercise 2. Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations.

Без попередження; неясно усвідомлювала; майбутній батько; пологова палата: народитися доношеним; наскільки я можу сказати; недоношений; ми зробили все, що в наших силах; дитяче відділення.

Exercise 3. Find in the text antonyms of the following words and word combinations.

Gradually, much better, slowly, a slight pain, voluntarily, an ordinary case, to be clearl\ conscious, a failure, young, postmature, everybody, death, never.

UNIT THIRTY-THREE

 

I Speaking Labor
II Independent Work WHO Pandemics and Tamiflu

 

I. Speaking: Labor

Exercise 1. Translate the words.

Amniotic fluid, cell division, embryo, fertilization, fetus, ovum, amniotic sac, sperm, umbilical cord, cervix.

Exercise 2. A pattern of signs often alerts a woman that she may be pregnant. A different pattern of signs occurs when labor begins at the end of pregnancy. Work in pairs to complete the list of signs using the words below. Decide if each sign in the exercise indicates pregnancy or labor. Write P (pregnancy) or L (labor).

bloating morning pelvis

contractions mucus rupture

discharge need strength

fatigue nipple temperature

mood period trembling

1. You will miss a menstrual period. P

2. False, 'Braxton Hicks'_____________ occur. __

3.________ and sleepiness are common. __

4. Contractions become more rhythmic and increase in___________________.

5. Some women feel abdominal___________________.

6.____________ swings and stress are often reported. __

7. You notice an increase in pink or white__________________. __

8. You may experience____________ sickness. __

9. Your basal body___________ will be elevated. __

10. There may be a 'show', which is the release of a_____________________ plug from the cervix. _______

11. You may feel the____________ to urinate frequently.

12. The baby's head engages - that is, it lowers into the_____________________.

 

13. It is common for the area around the__________________ to darken.

14. Shivering or__________ without reason is common.

15. Your waters break, which is the_______________ of the amniotic sac. __

Exercise 3. Read and act out the dialog.

Pain Relief

J — Janice, K - Karen J: Hello, my name's Janice. K: Hello, Janice. I'm Karen. J: Hi, Karen. Boy or girl? K: A boy. And yours? J: A girl.

K: Lovely. I think we gave birth at the same time last night, didn't we? J: Yes. I heard you.

K: Was I making so much noise? Well, it was the pain. J: Didn't you have any pain relief?

K: Oh yes. I had just gas and air at first. It does relieve the pain a bit, but the effect wears off very quickly. It makes you feel so light-headed if you have too much. It made me feel sick too. Anyway, when the pain became unbearable, I had an epidural.

J: Did that help you cope with the pain?

K: It took away the pain completely! My whole lower half went numb! It was great. How about you?

J: This was my third, so the pain was easier to bear. I did breathing exercises. I decided to have gas and air if the pain got worse, but I didn't need it. I had an epidural last time, but I didn't like losing all sensation. This time I wanted to feel the birth.

K: I'm sorry, Janice - 1 think you must be mad.

Exercise 4. Read Marie's birth story quickly. What complication was there with her birth?

We started trying for/making a baby three years ago. When I didn't get/go pregnant after two years, we made/had tests, which showed that my husband had a low sperm count. We had IVF, and six weeks later I found 1 was waiting for/expecting a baby. I was nervous when I had/ did my scan at twelve weeks, but everything was fine.

My waters broke in the middle of the night and I went into/entered labor a couple of hours later. The midwife made/did a vaginal examination and found that the baby was breech. I'd thought about a home birth, but was now glad I was having/giving birth in hospital. As it turned out, though, the medical team weren't needed. The midwife made/put a small cut and I managed to push out/remove the baby's legs and torso fairly easily - it was a girl! Then I made/ gave a big push and the head came out. Liliagfirve birth/was born at 6.28 p.m. I was sobbing as the midwife handed/delivered her to me.

 

Exercise 5. Underline the correct form of the verbs in italics.

 

Exercise 6. Tell a true story about a pregnancy and birth.

 

II. Independent Work: WHO. Pandemics and Tamif lu

Exercise 1. Read the text.

WHO

Many people do not know what these three letters mean. They even do not read WHO correctly. They read [hu:] but it is ['dAblju:'eitf ou] and it means World Health Organization. WHO was founded in 1948.

In 1946 the United Nations held an International Health Conference in New York. There the Constitution of WHO was signed by 61 countries. Now there are more than 125 member states. Membership is open to all countries.

WHO activities take many forms:

- strengthening national health services,

- preparing more and better health workers,

- controlling or eradicating epidemic diseases,

- protecting mother and child health,

- improving sanitation and water supply,

-- and making all other efforts to raise health levels.

One of the main services carried out by WHO is the service of epidemic warnings. The five main world epidemics of history - plague, cholera, smallpox, typhus and yellow fever - are still a great danger in our time of fast sea and air travel.

WHO gathers information and broadcasts it daily by radio to health authorities, ports, airports and ships at sea. WHO also informs national health services about outbreaks of viral diseases such as influenza and poliomyelitis.

Besides an epidemic information WHO also provides services which are needed by all the countries, such as international quarantine measures, world health statistics, international standardization of medicines and vaccines, development of medical research and technical publication programmes.

The daily work of the World Health Organization is carried out by a medical and administrative staff of a great number of international officers from different countries. These officers are stationed at headquarters (HQS) in Geneva, in Regional Offices, or with Special Centers working in every continent.







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