Студопедия — MEDICAL SPECIALTIES AND SPECIALISTS 30 страница
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MEDICAL SPECIALTIES AND SPECIALISTS 30 страница






Together with his teacher VP. Obraztsov they worked out a new method of sliding palpation13 of the abdominal cavity organs that won the world recognition14.

Notes:

1texture ['tekstfa] тканина

2degree - звання, ступінь

3research [ri's3:tfj наукове дослідження

4obstetrics - акушерство

5to bring (brought) up - виховувати

6charity school ['1fa?riti,sku:l] школа для бідних дітей

7thesis [-6i:sis] дисертація s estate [is'teit] маєток

9outskirts ['aotsk3:ts] околиці; передмістя

10favorable conditions - сприятливі умови
" supervision [,sju:ps'vi3n] нагляд

12 abdominal diseases - шлунково-кишкові хвороби

13 sliding palpation - ковзна пальпація

14 to win (won) recognition - здобути визнання

Answer the following questions:

1. What was O.M. Shumlyansky? 2. When and where was he born? 3. What school did he graduate from? 4. Where did he receive his doctor's degree? 5. Was he the author of many research works? 6. What was M.V. Skliphosovsky? 7. Where was he brought up? 8. When did he become a professor of the Petersburg Academy? 9. Where did he move then? 10. What did he do in Poltava? 11. What was M.D. Strazhesko? 12. Who was an initiator in establishing Kyiv Institute of Clinical Medicine? 13. Was he the author of many classical works? 14. What method did M.D. Strazhesko and his teacher VP. Obraztsov work out?

 

Text 6. Tibetan Medicine

Tibetan medicine is very ancient. It was over thousands of years ago when the ancient treatise on medicine "Chjud-shi" was written.

At present the scientists study various books and ancient xylographs about Tibetan medicine. The methods of treatment used by Tibetans are different from modern medicine but the theoretical ideas are quite logical.

Tibetan doctors thought that: diseases were caused by the violation of the equilibrium of the main "vital sources"; a disease reflected the suffering of the entire human organism and not just a separate organ. They considered that it was necessary to treat the entire organism.

One of the factors causing diseases was food. They considered that food was useless and

bad.

Tibetan doctors were gifted specialists. During the examination of patients they used different senses such as: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch. To diagnose a disease they differentiated between 400 different hues of pulse and it was felt by the doctor on the patient's both arms. The chief postulate of Tibetan medicine was: "Everything that surrounds us may be used as a medicine". Tibetans made medicines from raw plants, animals and mineral materials. They used precious metals and stones. The doctors took gold, silver, emerald, pearls, etc. They also used insects and mollusks. They burned animals and used ash from their inner organs as a medicine for patients. They considered that such ash could contain useful substances necessary for the patient. Their medicines were not toxic for patients. They used various medical herbs for treating.

Tibetan medicine has helped modern medicine in treating different diseases. At present our doctors often use medical herbs as medicines.

Modern medicine has the same commandment as Tibetan medicine. It is "Do not harm".

 

Text 7. Drugless Therapy

Nowadays, doctors are known to widely use medicines to treat patients. But in a number of cases medicines may either be not quite effective or produce side effects resulting in serious complications. That explains a growing interest over the world in methods that have anti­allergic action.

Our doctors are known to have designed an effective system of completing cure in sanatoria. It comprises special physical exercises, psychotherapy, dietotherapy, and balneotherapy. Their use cuts the dosage of drugs many times over. As for the procedures, they only act upon a specific area, not on the organism as a whole.

Our research institutes seem to be contributing much to health resort treatment and physiotherapy. The institutes are located in different regions and do their own specific research. In Myrhorod, for example, they specialize in using drinkable mineral waters, in Odesa they study medicinal muds, etc.

Specialists elaborate scientific foundation for health resort treatment, study the mechanisms of physical factors, define indications and contraindications to health resort treatment, render different services and do many other things. Over the last few decades they have greatly expanded their knowledge about man and his diseases. They have got more technical research facilities, and now have a clearer picture of how different physical factors act upon the human organism. The medical profession's approach to treating illnesses has been changing. Today they are increasingly using methods of treatment that are easier on the patients than those used before.

They use microwave frequency electromagnetic fields to act upon endocrine glands to cure such diseases as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatism, female and male infertility, and bronchial asthma. By applying electromagnetic fields to the thyroid gland they can cure ulcers. This kind of treatment is much more effective than drug therapy. While drug therapy produces 50 to 60 per cent successful treatment of an ulcer, this method is nearly 75 per cent effective.

They use sulphide water, carbonic acid gas, electrotherapy among other methods to treat patients. Good results have been obtained in treating arthritis and diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

 

Text 8. Ecological Situation In Ukraine

Improvement of ecological situation in Ukraine is a very important problem. The tragedy of the Chornobyl disaster1 is the first fearsome warning2 of the possibility of a coming ecological apocalypse.

In Ukraine there are many industrial enterprises which pollute our air, water and soil. Our rivers that used to be full of fish are poisoned3. The Black Sea and the Sea of Azov are polluted. One can find zinc, copper, mercury and others in our rivers and seas.

Many plants and factories have no nature-conserving technologies or they are not perfect. They have no possibility to buy these cleaning constructions4 in spite of that they pay fines for their disorders.

The majority of Ukrainian population lives in ecological disaster zones or in ecologically unfavorable conditions5. The sickness rate6 which is linked with the worsening natural environment7 is rapidly rising.

The Supreme Soviet of Ukraine has adopted the decision on urgent measures" to improve the country's ecological situation.

The leaders of industrial enterprises must take personal responsibility for polluting our environment. At present much attention is paid to the improvement of sanitary conditions and treatment of our population at clinics and health resorts.

Urgent measures aimed to improve the ecological situation of the country should normalize the state of affairs9.

Notes:

1 disaster [di'za:sts] катастрофа, лихо

2 warning ['wo:nirj] попередження, застереження

3 to poison ['paizn] отруювати

4 cleaning constructions - очисні споруди

5 unfavorable conditions - несприятливі умови, оточення

6 sickness rate - швидкість виникнення хвороби " environment [in'vaisrenment] середовище

s urgent measures - невідкладні заходи 9 affair - справа

Text 9 Part A. Technology

Scientists have designed an electronic "nose" that can identify stale crisps and even tell wine from champagne.

The Neotronics Olfactory Sensing Equipment, also known as NOSE, works on a similar basis to the human nose. Tiny sensors1 respond electronically to different chemicals in the air. Sensors in the NOSE are much bigger than the human variety and it has just 12 of them, compared with the 10 000 possessed by the average human. But, according to the company that markets the device, NOSE can be set up2 to detect various smells.

The NOSE can electronically compare a smell with a computer profile of the smell it is supposed to be smelling. This process takes just over a minute, after which time a "smell picture" comes onto the computer screen. If the computer draws a circle on the screen, it means that the correct sample has been tested.

The company that produces the NOSE expects that it will be used in industry for quality control3 purposes. It could detect variations in different batches4 of food and drink, for instance.

Notes:

1 sensor ['sensa] an instrument which reacts to certain physical conditions or impressions such as beat, and which is used to provide information

2 set up [set'Apj here, make the necessary preparations for something to be used in a certain way

3 quality control ['kwolitikan'traul] activity of checking that products are all of a satisfactory standard

4 batch [bsetf] group of things or people

 

Part B. Diagnosis Made by Machine

 

There is a small hall filled with clever machines at this Institute. The flicker of indicator lamps and figures on their panels showed that the machines were making complicated analytical computations. This is the laboratory of cybernetics where computing machines help the doctors to make an accurate diagnosis of a great variety of diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lungs and stomach, after processing a vast stock of symptoms stored in their memory.

The mathematical methods of cybernetics have also enabled the physician to get more from the recordings made by cardiographic, phonographic and other diagnostic apparatuses and instruments. Their curves now tell much more about the condition of a patient than any individual doctor could.

The diagnostic machines at the Institute are linked by telegraph lines with some cities.

 

Part C. Nicotine Replacement Therapy

People trying to give up smoking may find it easier if they use nicotine patches.

Many doctors believe that tobacco is as addictive as drugs like cocaine or heroin. Nicotine is the addictive chemical ingredient in tobacco. However, it is other substances in cigarette smoke that cause heart disease, cancers and other conditions associated with smoking.

Nicotine replacement therapies allow smokers to break their habit of cigarette smoking without suffering nicotine withdrawal symptoms. These therapies are usually in the form of chewing gum or special skin patches which deliver the nicotine slowly through the skin.

The results of a study of 18 000 people from 11 countries suggest that skin patches are the best form of nicotine replacement therapy for general use. The team found that people using these are almost twice as likely to give up as those using willpower1 alone.

Note:

willpower [Ч'і1,раиз] strong determination to do something

 

Text 10. Cosmetics

Face powder. Face powder is used to give the skin a pleasant appearance. The powder usually requires several ingredients to obtain proper appearance, sticking properties and absorbance. A typical formula is: talc - 65 %, precipitated chalk - 10 %, zinc oxide - 20 %, zinc stearate - 5 %, to which are added small amounts of perfume and coloring matter. Compact powders are similar to face powder with mineral oil or lanolin, and organic hydroxy compounds added as binders. They are pressed after mixing.

Lipstick. Lipstick consists of a solution or suspension of coloring agents in a mixture of high molecular weight hydrocarbons or their derivatives or both. The material must be soft to produce a good application on lips, yet the film must not be too easily removed: lipstick is perfumed to give an odor and pleasant taste. The color easily comes from a dye or from the cosine group of dyes. Two dyes used for the preparation of lipstick are: dibromofluorescein (yellow-red) and tetrabromofluorescein (purple). The ingredients in a typical formulation include: dye, which gives the lipstick color, 4-8 % castor oil, paraffin or fats which dissolve dye - 50 %, lapodin - 25 %, carnauba wax, beeswax, which raise the melting point of lisptick - 18 %, perfume, which gives it a pleasant taste - 1.5 %. Carnauba wax and beeswax are high molecular weight esters. Carnauba wax is extracted from the leaves of the Brazilian palm where it occurs externally on the leaves. The alcolols and acids hydrolysed from esters of beeswax contain 26 to 28 carbon atoms.

In the manufacture of lipstick the dye is added to the castor oil and then the waxes, lanolin and perfume are mixed with them. Then the mass is heated till a homogenous mixture is obtained. The mass is then put into suitable forms and after a number of other operations packaged.

Eye make-up. There are several types of eye make-up: eyebrow pencils, mascara for eyelashes and shading. Eyeshadow or shading which is now popular, was also very popular in ancient Egypt. Eyebrow pencils are very much like lipstick, but they contain a different coloring matter. The coloring matter is a pigment such as lampblack; the other ingredients include fats, oils, petrolatum, and lanolin, mixed to give the necessary melting point, which may be higher by the addition of beeswax or paraffin. Petrolatum is a semisolid mixture of hydrocarbons saturated and unsaturated with melting point 34° to 54°C. Brown pencils are made by using iron oxide pigments in place of lampblack.

Mascara is used to darken eyelashes and give them a longer appearance. The same colors as in eyebrow pencils are used as well as other mineral coloring matters such as chromic oxyde (dark green) and ultramarine (blue) pigment of various composition; a silicate with some sodium sulphide. The coloring matter is suspended in a mixture of oils, fats, waxes. The mascara may be water-soluble or water-resistant, depending upon the composition of the mixture. A typical formulation consists of about 40 per cent wax (beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin). 50 per cent soap (such as thriethanolamine), 5 percent lanolin and 5 per cent coloring matter.

Perfume. A perfume is a material containing one or more volatile constituens, which can produce aroma. The sense of odor is quite complex and the nose can distinguish a great number of different odors. The chemistry of perfumes is quite complex since it includes up to 5000 different natural or synthetic materials.

A typical perfume has at least three components of somewhat different volatility and molecular weights. The first, called the top note, is the most volatile and specific odour when the perfume is first applied. The second, called the middle note, is less volatile and is generally a flower extract (violet, lilac, etc.). The last or end note is least volatile and is usually a resin.

Note:

top note - високолеткі; початкова нота end note - низьколеткі; кінцева нота

Most perfumes contain many components and chemically are often complex mixtures. As the analysis of natural perfume materials progresses the use of pure synthetic organic compounds which increase the number of specific odors becomes very common. Other compounds used in perfumes include high molecular weight alcohols and esters. Esters of these alcohols are used to make synthetic rose aromas for perfumes. For example, the ester formed by reaction between geraniol and formic acid has a rose-type odor.

Typical perfumes are 10 to 25 % perfume essence and 75 to 90 % alcohol. Perfumes are added to most cosmetics to give them a pleasant odor. They also mask the natural odor of their constituents. They are often mildly bactericidal and antiseptic.

ВІДПОВІДІ НА ТЕСТОВІ ЗАВДАННЯ

 

Lesson 39. Control Tests (рубіжний тестовий контроль знань студентів усіх відділень

із загального догляду за хворими)

 

1. D 11. В 21. Е 31. D 41. В 51. В
2. D 12. F 22. С 32. D 42. D 52. А
3. D 13. А 23. В 33. D 43. А 53. Е
4. D 14. В 24. В 34. А 44. В 54. А
5. В 15. с 25. А 35. С 45. В 55. Е
6. В 16. в 26. Е 36. В 46. А 56. С
7. С 17. с 27. D 37. D 47. В 57. В
8. С 18. в 28. В 38. D 48. С 58. с
9. с 19. с 29. В 39. В 49. В 59. в
10. в 20. с 30. С 40. С 50. с 60. с

 

 

Unit 8. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

 

1. D 11. E 21. C 31. C 41. D
2. A 12. A   A 32. D 42. В
j. В 13. A 23. В 33. C 43. В
4. D 14. В 24. В 34. C 44. В
5. E 15. В 25. A 35. D 45. C
6. D 16. E 26. D 36. E 46. A
7. A 17. D 27. C 37. E 47. E
8. В 18. В 28. В 38. В 48. A
9. D 19. A 29. В 39. A 49. В
10. В 20. В 30. A 40. В 50. C
Unit 12. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
1. В 11. A 21. В 31. D 41. c
2. В 12. A 22. E 32. C 42. c
3. c 13. D 23. A 33. В   c
4. A 14. В 24. C 34. E 44. E
5. C 15. D 25. C 35. A 45. D
6. c 16. C 26. В 36. A 46. D
7. D 17. D 27. E 37. В 47. A
8. A 18. A 28. A 38. E 48. A
9. C 19. C 29. D 39. В 49. C
10. D 20. c 30. A 40. A 50. г,

Unit 16. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

 

r 1~ A 11. C 21. D 31. C 41. C
2. E 12. В 22. В 32. В 42. В
3. C 13. в 23. E   A 43. D
4. В 14. D 24. D 34. A 44. E
D. c 15. D 25. D 35. D 45. A
6. E 16. E 26. C 36. D 46. E
7. C 17. A 27. A 37. D 47. A
8. A 18. E 28. В 38. A 48. A
9. E 19. A 29. D 39. В 49. В
10. D 20. C 30. В 40. c 50. c
Unit 18. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
1. В 11. В 21. D 31. E 41. A
2. В 12. D 22. В 32. C 42. E
h 3. c 13. C 23. E 33. D 43. В
4. A 14. В 24. A 34. A 44. A
5. D 15. D 25. В 35. В 45. D
6. A 16. C 26. D 36. В 46. A
7. E 17. D 27. E 37. c 47. C
8. E 18. A 28. C 38. E 48. D
9. D 19. C 29. D 39. D 49. A
10. A 20. В 30. L А j 40. і c 50. E
Unit 23. NERVOUS SYSTEM. SENSE ORGANS
1. C 11. E 21. A! Зі. г в" 1 41. ^ E
2. A 12. A 22. c 32. c 42. A
3. D 13. D 23. D 33. D 43. В
4. В 14. В 24. "1 D 34. A 44. C
5. D 15. A 25. В 35. В 45. В
6. E 16. E 26. В 36. c 46. В
7. A L 11 D 27. C 37. D 47. В
8. D 18. В 28. D 38. A 48. D
9. C 19. C 29. C 39. D 49. A
10. C 20. E 30. В 40. C 50. В

Unit 24. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. CELL. PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF THE

ORGANISM

 

1. В 11. C 21. В 31. A 41. C
2. D 12. В 22. В 32. D 42. C
3. E 13. A 23. E 33. E 43. E
4. D 14. C 24. A 34. E 44. D
5. C 15. D 25. C 35. D 45. C
6. В 16. E 26. C 36. C 46. A
7. A 17. C 27. C 37. A 47. D
8. D 18. В 28. E 38. E 48. E
9. C 19. D 29. В 39. В 49. В
10. C 20. D 30. В 40. A 50. A

 

Unit 36. URINARY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

 

1. В 11. E 21. В 31. Е 41. В
2. c 12. В 22. В 32. В 42. D
3. в 13. A 23. В 33. А 43. С
4. E 14. C 24. E 34. В 44. А
5. C 15. C 25. В 35. D 45. С
6. A 16. D 26. В 36. А 46. D
7. A 17. D 27. с 37. D 47. В
8. D 18. C 28. А 38. D 48. Е
9. E 19. A 29. Е 39. С 49. А
10. В 20. D 30. D 40. В 50. D

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