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Л to plead guilty
1. Л. Р. Давидович, Т. С. Резниченко «Ребёнок плохо говорит? Почему? Что делать?» - М: «Гном», 2001
2. О. Н. Козак «Игры и занятия с детьми от рождения до 3-х лет» - Спб: «Союз», 1998
3. «Особый ребёнок» исследования и опыт помощи – М: «Теревинф», 2006
4. «Эмоциональное и познавательное развитие ребёнка на музыкальных занятиях» - М: «Теревинф», 2006
5. В. Г. Петрова, И. В. Белякова «Психология умственно отсталого ребёнка» - М: «РОУ», 1996
6. Б. С. Волков, Н. В. Волкова «Психология общения в детском возрасте» - М: 1996
7. С. Д. Забрамная «Развивающие занятия с детьми» - М: РОН, 2001
8. А. С. Галанов «Игры, которые лечат» - М: «Сфера», 2004
9. Е. И. Рогов «Настольная книга практического психолога» - М: «Владос», 1998
10. «Адаптация ребёнка в группе и развитие общения на игровом занятии КРУГ» - М: «Теревинф», 2009
11. Д. Алвин, Э. Уорик «Музыкальная терапия для детей с аутизмом» - М: «Теревинф», 2008
12. А. В. Ястребова «Учителю о детях с недостатками речи» - М: «Аркти», 1996
13. Л. Д. Короткова «Сказкотерапия для дошк. и мл. шк. возраста»/ метод. рекоменд. Для педагогической и психо-коррекционной работы - М: ЦГЛ, 2004
14. Т. А. Шорыгина «Зелёные сказки» - экология для малышей – М: «Книголюб», 2005
15. И. В. Гуревич «Развитие речи и воображения» подгот. группа – Волгоград: «Корифей», 2010
16. Л. Б. Дерягина «Играем в сказку» сценарии в стихах для постановки в д/с и нач. шк. – Спб: «Детство-пресс», 2010
17. Л. Г. Нуриева «Развитие речи у аутичных детей» методич. Разработки и наглядные материалы – М: «Теревинф», 2010
18. С. П. Цуканова «Речевые праздники и развлечения в д/с» - М: «Гном», 2010
Составила: Е. С. Рузавина учитель-логопед 2011 год.
There is no room for capital punishment in a civilised society.
Use the information and the vocabulary from the Unit to argue the statement above.
Chapter III LAW ENFORCEMENT
UNIT 1. THE HISTORY OF POLICE FORCES
The word POLICE means, generally, the arrangements made in all civilised countries to ensure that the inhabitants keep the peace and obey the law. The word also denotes the force of peace officers (or police) employed for this purpose.
Which of the following actions can be performed by a POLICE OFFICER? Sort out the odd words. Explain your choice.
T to apprehend
• to defend in court
• to convict
• to detain
• to imprison
• to investigate
• to lock up
• to safeguard
л to plead guilty
• to search
• to seize
• to sentence
• to take into custody
TASK J♦ Read the text and translate the sentences given in bold
type in witing:
From the History of Police Forces
Policc is the agency of a community or government that is responsible for maintaining public order and preventing and detecting crime. The basic police mission — preserving order by enforcing rules of conduct or laws — was the same in ancient societies as it is in the contemporary sophisticated urban environments,
The conception of the police force as a protective and law enforcement organisation developed from the use of military bodies as guardians of the peace, such as the Praetorian Guard — bodyguard of the ancient Roman emperors. The Romans achieved a high level of law enforcement, which remained in effect until the decline of the empire and the onset of the Middle Ages.
During the Middle Ages, policing authority was the responsibility of local nobles on their individual estates. Each noble generally appointed an official, known as a constable, to carry out the law. The constable's duties included keeping the peace and arresting and guarding criminals. For many decades constables were unpaid citi2ens who took turns at the job, which became increasingly burdensome and unpopular. By the mid-16tu century, wealthy citizcns often resorted to paying deputies to assume their turns as constables; as this practice became widespread, the quality of the constables declined drastically.
Police forces developed throughout the centuries, taking various forms. In France during the 17th century King Louis XIV maintained a small central police organisation consisting of some 40 inspectors who, with the help of numerous paid informants, supplied the government with details about the conduct of private individuals. The king could then exercise the kind of justice he saw fit. This system continued during the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI. After the French Revolution, two separate police bodies were set up, one to handle ordinary duties and the other to deal with political crimes.
In 1663 the city of London began paying watchmen (generally old men who were unable to find other work) to guard the streets at night. Until the end of the 13th century, the watchmen — as inefficient as they were — along with a few constables, remained the only form of policing in the city.
The inability of watchmcn and constables to curb lawlessness, particularly in London, led to a demand for a more effective force to deal with criminals and to protcct the population. After much deliberation in Parliament, the British statesman Sir Robert Peel in 1829 established the London Metropolitan Police, which became the world's first modern organised police force.
The force was guided by the concept of crime prevention as a primary police objective; it also embodied the belief that such a force should depend on the consent and cooperation of the public, and the idea that police constables were to be civil and courteous to the people. The Metropolitan Police force was well organised and disciplined and, after an initial period of public skepticism, became the model for other police forces in Great Britain. Several years later the Royal Irish Constabulary was formed, and Australia, India, and Canada soon established similar organizations. Other countries followed, impressed by the success of the plan, until nations throughout the world had adopted police systems based on the British model. The development of the British police system is especially significant because the pattern that emerged, had great influence on the style of policing in almost all industrial societies.
In the U.S4 the first full-time organised policc departments were formed in New York City in 1845 and shortly thereafter in Boston, not only in response to crime but also to control unrest The American police adopted many British methods, but at times they became involved in local politics- The British police, on the other hand, have traditionally depended on loyalty to the law, rather than to elected public officials, as the source of their authority and independence.
TASK 2. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the basic police mission?
2. How did the police force as law enforcement organization arise and develop?
3. Why did the quality of the constables in England decline?
4. How were policing functions performed in France?
5. What was the form of policing London in the 17 th century?
6. Why was there a need for a more effective force to deal with criminals in England?
7. What factors brought about the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Force?
8. What principles were the British police guided by?
9. Why did the Metropolitan Police Force become the model for other police forces in Britain and abroad?
10. Why is the development of the British police system especially significant?
TASK Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
L дебаты в парламенте
2. обеспечивать соблюдение правил поведения
3. основная задача полиции (2)
4. оставаться в силе
5. платный осведомитель
6. нести полицейскую службу
7. предупреждение преступности
8. раскрывать преступления
9. сдерживать рост преступности
10. следить за соблюдением законов
11. постоянно действующая организация
12. полицейские структуры
13. обеспечение правопорядка
14. блюститель порядка
TASK 4. Find in the texts above the expressions containing the words 'law' and 'order'. Continue the following lists. Add more expressions using a dictionary:
to maintain public order
UNIT 2. THE ORGANISATION OF POLICE FORCES
The British Police
The British police officer is a well-known figure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen British films. Policemen are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in pairs down the streets ("walking the beat") or driving specially marked police cars. Once known as 'panda cars' because of their distinctive markings, these are now often jokingly referred to as 'jam sandwiches' because of the pink fluorescent stripe running horizontally around the bodywork. In the past, policemen were often known as 'bobbies1 after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force. Nowadays, common nicknames include 'the cops', £the fuzz', 'the pigs', and 'the Old Bill1 (particularly in London). Few people realise, however, that the police in Britain are organised very differently from many other countries.
Most countries, for example, have a national police force which is controlled by central Government. Britain has no national police force, although police policy is governed by the central Government's Home Office. Instead, there is a separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority —- a committee of local county councillors and magistrates.
The forces co-operate with each other, but it is unusual for members of one force to operate in another's area unless they are asked to give assistance. This sometimes happens when there has been a very serious crime. A Chief Constable (the most senior police officer of a force) may sometimes ask for the assistance of London's police force, based at New Scotland Yard — known simply as 'the Yard*.
In most countries the police carry guns. In Britain, however, this is extremely unusual. Policemen do not, as a rule, carry firearms in their day-to-day work, though certain specialist units
In certain circumstances specially trained police officers can be armed, but only with the signed permission of a magistrate.
All members of the police must have gained a certain level of academic qualifications at school and undergone a period of intensive training. Like in the army, there are a number of ranks: after the Chief Constable comes the Assistant Chief Constable, Chief Superintendent, Chief Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. Women make up about 10 per cent of the police force. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables — members of the public who work for the police voluntarily for a few hours a week.
Each police force has its own Criminal Investigation Department (CID), Members of CIDs are detectives, and they do not wear uniforms. (The other uniformed people you see in British towns are traffic wardens. Their job is to make sure that drivers obey the parking regulations. They have no other powers — it is the police who are responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving and drunken driving.)
The duties of the police are varied, ranging from assisting at accidents to safeguarding public order and dealing with lost property. One of their main functions is, of course, apprehending criminals and would-be criminals.
TASK L Answer the following questions:
L Who was the founder of the British police?
2. What does "walking the beat" mean?
3. Why are British police cars called 'jamsandwich' cars in colloquial speech?
4. Is there a single police force, organised by central government?
5. What is the major difference in police organisation between Britain and some other countries?
6. When do British police forces co-operate with each other?
7. What is the name of London's police headquarters?
8. In what situations can policemen carry arms?
9. What are the ranks of policemen?
10. What is the job of CID officers?
11. What are the duties of traffic wardens?
TASK 2. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the appropriate words and expressions from the previous text:
In Britain different areas have different________________ , For
instance, the Metropolitan police operate in London, but there are different police forces in the counties outside London.
The top man in each police force is_____________________ , He is
appointed by the local Watch Committee which is a________________
of the local government The Watch Committee can dismiss him, too, if the central government agrees. The Chief Constable appoints all the below him in his force.
Things are slightly different in London. The top man is known as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner and his appointment is arranged through the central government.
British police are normally not . In special cases,
when their work becomes dangerous, they can be given _______ however.
As is well known, the _____________ of the British policeman
is blue, with a tall helmet. These days, though, you can see a different uniform in the streets. This is the uniform with the
yellow hatband worn by____________ . Their job is simply to control
traffic and .
The most famous name connected with the British police is
__________ . It is the headquarters of the London police force.
Besides dealing with local police matters, the London police also help all over England and Wales with difficult crimes. They do this at the request of the local police
TASK 3. Render the following text into English using the information and vocabulary from the texts above:
В Великобритании существует 52 полицейских подразделения: 43 в Англии и Уэльсе, 8 в Шотландии и 1 в Северной Ирландии. Столичная полиция и Полиция лондонского Сити отвечают за охрану общественного порядка в Лондоне. Кроме того, специальное подразделение транспортной полиции патрулирует железнодорожную сеть» а такжё метро Лондона,
Полицейская служба финансируется центральным правительством и местными властями, Каждое полицейское подразделение имеет своих специальных констеблей-добровольцев, которые работают в полиции в свободное время и помогают кадровым офицерам полиции, причем их работа не оплачивается. Они являются своеобразным связующим звеном между полицией и населением.
Полицейские подразделения Англии и Уэльса подведомственны органам местной полиции. Столичная полиция находится в подчинении у Министра внутренних дел. Подразделения в областях возглавляют главные констебли. Они несут ответственность за свою работу перед центральными полицейскими органами, которые назначают начальника полиции и его помощника. Комиссар Столичной полиции и его непосредственные подчиненные назначаются по рекомендации министра внутренних дел.
TASK 4, Complete the following text with the words and phrases from the box;
walkie-talkie, plain clothes, detective, uniform, policeman, police force, rank, join
Alan is now old enough and tall enough to_________________ the
___________________ . At first, of course, he'll be an ordinary !
______ of the lowest . He'll wear a___________ and
go out in the streets keeping in touch with the police station with
his , Then he'd like to he a in_______
investigating serious crimes,
TASK 5. Look at the picture and read the police bulletin: Crime: Armed Robbery
Location: South &. South Park Streets
Date: November 13, 1999
The public's assistance is requested in identifying the person or persons responsible for an armed robbery on the southwest corner of the South St. and South Park St. intersection.
This crime occurred at 9:30 a.m. on November 13, 1999.
At about 9:30 a.m. the victim," a young visitor to the city, was walking south along South Park St. At the southwest corner cf South Park St. and South St., the suspect
"Give me your purse or you're stuck!" The victim handed it over and the suspect fled the scene of the crime.
The suspect is described as a white male, 20—25 years old, medium build, 5'2", moustache, blue eyes, short brown hair, pointed nose, lie was wearing a red baseball cap with a Montreal Canadians logo, a dark blue jacket, green jeans and white sneakers.
This man is armed and therefore dangerous. If you can identify the man in the photofit picture, or have any information on this or any crime, contact the local Police Department or Crime Stoppers at, 1-800-555-8477, and you may he eligible for a cash reward.
TASK 6. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
» подозреваемый « жертва
« вооруженное ограбление » фоторобот
е денежное вознаграждение * опознать преступника л скрыться с места преступления
TASK 7. Find in the text the description of the criminal and compose an opposite one: e.g. "The suspect is described as black, very tall..." Use some of the expressions given below:
FACE — long, round, oval, thin, plump, fleshy, puffy, wrinkled,
pasty, pimpled, pock-marked, clean-shaven FEATURES — clean-cut, delicate, forceful, regular / irregular,
large, small, stern COMPLEXION — fair, pale, dark, sallow
HAIR — curly, wavy, straight, receding (scanty), rumpled, shoulder-length, medium-length, short-cut, crew-cut, bobbed, dyed, bald, fair /dark-haired FOREHEAD — high, low, narrow, square, broad EYES — hollowed, bulging, close-set, deep-set, sunken, wide-
apart, crossed-eyed EYEBROWS — thin, thick, bushy, arched, pencilled, shaggy EARS — small, big, jug-eared
NOSE — prominent, straight, pointed, hooked, flat, aquiline,
snub-nosed LIPS — full, thin, painted, cleft lip TEETH — even / uneven, sparse, artificial CHEEKS — plump, hollow, ruddy, stubby CHIN — square, pointed, double, massive, protruding
BEARD — full, bushy, spade beard, grey-bearded, heavy-bearded
MOUSTACHE — thin, thick, tooth brush, walrus HEIGHT — tall, short, of medium height BUILT — average, medium built, well-built, plump, skinny DISTINGUISHING FEATURES — birth marks, freckles, scars, wooden leg, humpback, pot-belly
TASK 8, Translate the following police bulletin into English and make the corresponding photofit:
ПХ РАЗЫСКИВАЕТ МПЛГШПЯ
Разыскиваются преступники, совершившие убийство 21 сентября в доме номер 99 по проспекту Мира,
Первый; На вид 30 лет, рост 170— 175 см, худощавого телосложения, волосы черные прямые, лицо круглое, нос прямой, глаза слегка навыкате.
Был одет: темная короткая кожаная куртка, светлые брюки, коричневые ботинки. Носит темные очки в металлической оправе.
Второй: На вид 40 лет, рост 175— ISO см, плотного телосложения, волосы светлые, вьющиеся до плеч, лицо овальное, нос курносый, брови густые.
Был одет; темная удлиненная кожаная куртка, темные брюки.
Любую имеющуюся информацию пр о сь б а с ообщ и ть по теле фолу 222-33-22, или 02.
Just for Fun
A beautiful blonde walked into a Chicago police station and gave the desk sergeant a detailed description of a man who had dragged her by the hair down three flights of stairs, threatened to choke her to death and finally beat her up,
"With this description we'll have him arrested in no time/* said the desk sergeant.
"But I don't want him arrested", the young woman
protested. "Just find him for me. He promised to marry me,"
* * *
— Can you describe the individual?
— He was about medium height and had a beard
— Was this a male or female?
ROLE-PLAY Identify the Suspect!