The tenses generally move backwards in this way (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):
| present simple I'm a teacher.
|| past simple He said he was a teacher.
| present continuous I'm having lunch with my parents.
|| past continuous. He said he was having lunch with his parents.
| present perfect simple I've been to France three times.
|| past perfect simple He said he had been to France three times.
| present perfect continuous I've been working very hard.
|| past perfect continuous He said he had been working very hard.
| past simple I bought a new car.
|| past perfect He said he had bought a new car.
| past continuous It was raining earlier.
|| past perfect continuous He said it had been raining earlier.
| past perfect The play had started when I arrived.
|| past perfect NO CHANGE POSSIBLE
| past perfect continuous I'd already been living in London for 5 years.
|| past perfect continuous NO CHANGE POSSIBLE
Other verb forms also sometimes change:
| will I'll come and see you soon.
|| would He said he would come and see me soon.
| can I can swim under water for two minutes.
|| could He said he could swim under water for two minutes.
| must All tickets must be bought in advance.
|| had to He said that all tickets had to be bought in advance.
| shall What shall we do about it?
|| should He asked what we should do about it.
| may May I smoke?
|| might He asked if he might smoke.
Things are slightly more complicated with imperatives:
| positive imperative : Watch out!
|| tell + infinitive He told me to watch out.
| negative imperative: Don't do that again!
|| tell + not + infinitive He told me not to do it again.
| imperatives as requests: Please give me some money.
|| ask + infinitive He asked me to give him some money.
Time and place references.They often have to change:
|| that day
| this week
|| that week
|| the following day the next day the day after
| next week
|| the following week the next week the week after
|| the previous day the day before
| last week
|| the previous week the week before
|| previously before
| 2 weeks ago
|| 2 weeks previously 2 weeks before
|| that night
| last Saturday
|| the previous Saturday the Saturday before
| next Saturday
|| the following Saturday the next Saturday the Saturday after that Saturday
I went to the theatre last night.
He said he had gone to the theatre the night before.
I'm having a party next weekend.
He said he was having a party the next weekend.
I'm staying here until next week.
He said he was staying there until the following week.
I came over from London 3 years ago.
He said he had come over from London 3 years before.
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