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Text A. The Viscera

Although they are often called by a single name, the viscera, the organs that fill the body's chest and abdominal cavities compose several different systems — respiratory, digestive and urogenital, which togethe provide the body with food and oxygen and remove wastes (продукты распада).

The trachea and langs are parts of the respiratory system, which delivers oxygen to the blood. The lungs consist of millions of elastic membranus sacs which together can hold about as much air as a football.

The organs of the digestive system most prominant ones are: the stomach, the large and small intestines and the liver. They modify foods wich the body takes in. The soft, reddish-brown liver, the largest gland in the body, plays hundreds of roles, from producting proteins to secreting bile.

The bladder is part of the urinary system, wich regulates the body's water supply. The kidneys, located behind the stomach and liver, filter out wastes and pass them along to the bladder for storage (накопление) and discharge.


ХШ. 1. State the part ot speech by the suffixes:

primary, attentive, serous, secondary, shortage, active, numerous, respiratory, usage

2. Find the prefixes in the following words:

substance, interspace, subdivision, irregular, impossible

3. Give derivatives of the following verbs:

act, connect, describe, determine, find, locate, contract

XIV. Describe the location of the organs:

the brain, the lungs, the stomach, the small intestine, the liver, the pancreas, the heart, the tongue, the gallbladder

XV. Supply extended answers to the following questions:

1. What main parts is the skeleton composed of? 2. What bones compose the spinal column? 3. What bones is the chest composed of? 4. What parts do the lower and upper extremities consist of? 5. What cavities are there in the skull? 6. What do you know about the IV International Federal Congress of Anatomists? 7. How many basic groups are the muscles of the human body divided into? 8. What scientific work did Prof. Lesgaft carry out? 9. What can you tell us about the general vascular system? 10. What structure has the human heart? 11. Where are the lungs located? 12. What anatomical structure have the lungs? 13. What weight and what colour have the lungs? 14. What portions is the alimentary tract composed of?

XVI. Read and translate Text B:

Text В

According to their functions different organs of the human body are divided into several systems: the bones, the muscular system, the alimentary tract, the respiratory system, the urogenital1 system, the vascular system, and the nervous system.

The muscles and the bones are under the layer of subcutaneous2 fat. The muscles are connected with the bones.

The heart and the large blood vessels connected with it, as well as the lungs and the esophagus are in the thoracic cavity. The spleen, the liver and the stomach are in the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The small and large intestines are in the abdominal cavity lower than the stomach, the liver and the spleen. The kidneys are on the posterior side of the abdominal cavity.

Notes 2. subcntane^ns ksAbkju'luiljJ!>] — подкожный


XVII. Read Text С Make ifs plan: Text C. New Investigations on the Vascular Structure of the Heart

Great work on modern anatomy was begun in the 15th and 16th centuries. Such great men as Leonardo da Vinchi, Vesalius, Servet and Harvey did much to study the structure of the human body.

In the 20th century anatomy became an exact science. Scientists considered that no new discoveries could be made in this field.

But in 1968 Prof. Seraphima Samoilova, a surgeon — a student of Sergei Udin, who worked in Leningrad, began to study the heart vessels.

Anatomists always considered that the heart was mainly a muscular organ. The heart chambers, the valves, the muscular bands and the coats were well described. But not much was said about the heart vessels.

Seraphima Samoilova determined that the heart consisted of thin vascular tubes. Half of the heart weight was composed of the bands of vessels. She came to the conclusion that the heart was a dilated large vessel included in muscular tissues.

The structure of the heart as a band of vessels is very intricate fintrikit] (сложный) and varies with age and diseases.

Seraphima Samoilova included all the findings of her research work into the book called The Anatomy of Cardiac Blood Vessels.

This book was published in Leningrad in 1970. It helps surgeons to perform operations on the heart.

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