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Text F. Methods Used in Cardiosurgery
In performing the operations on the contracting heart there is danger of the impairment of cardiac function and partial arrest of blood circulation, resulting in the damage to some organs, brain cells in particular.
Such danger is eliminated when artificial blood circulation apparatus called heart-lungs is used during the operation. By using the artificial blood Circulation apparatus the heart is excluded from the blood circulation and the surgeon is able to work on the "dry" heart for a longer period of time achieving better results.
Hypothermia is another method used in heart operations. When the patient is under hypothermia the surgeon can eliminate congenital or developed heart defects without the loss of the patient's blood during the operation.
The method of occlusion consists of bandaging all the vessels carrying blood to and from the heart just before making an incision on the cardiac wall. When the method of occlusion is applied the surgeon evacuates from the heart that amount of blood which is inside its cavities (in the adult it is about 100-150 ml) and performs the necessary operation to eliminate the cardiac defect.
XVI. Choose the answer corresponding to Texts E and F:
1. How is the danger of the partial arrest of blood supply eliminated during heart operations? (a) It is eliminated by using hypothermia; b) It is eliminated by using artificial blood circulation apparatus.) 2. What vessels are bandaged when the method of occlusion is employed in heart operations? (a) The portal veins are bandaged; b) All the vessels carrying blood to and from the heart are bandaged.)
HOME ASSIGNMENTS (REVISION)
I. Повторите грамматические правила, лексический и текстовой материал, цикл VI (уроки 34—39).
II. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. Назовите формулу группы времен Perfect Continuous. 2. Как переводятся времена группы Perfect Continuous? 3. Из каких частей состоит сложное дополнение, и на каком месте в предложении оно стоит? 4. Как переводится на русский язык сложное дополнение?
III. Найдите сказуемые, определите их время и напишите формулы, по которым они образованы. Переведите предложения:
1. The life of the little girl was saved thanks to a successful operation for a congenital heart defect. 2. On his first admission to the hospital the patient complained of palpitation and discomfort in the chest. 3. The patient had numerous foci of inflammation in the left lung before he underwent the streptomycin treatment. 4. The girl has had heart murmurs since the age of seven and no therapeutic measures were effective in their elimination. 5. On palpation the physician determined that the liver was considerably enlarged.
IV.* Закончите следующие предложения, выбрав нужный вариант:
1. The doctor wanted... (a) the heart failure to develop frequently; 6) the patient to be followed-up at the out-patient department) 2. The nurse made... (a) the patient take bromide to control his sleeplessness; 6) the heart be excluded from the blood circulation) 3. The surgeon ordered... (a) the patient's wound to be bandaged immediately; 6) the intensity of the inflammatory process to be reducing gradually)
rupture, dangerous, incision, fibrillation, congenital, recurrence, eliminate, strictly, bandage, failure, extensive, frequently, evidence, sensitive, radiate, disturbance, damage, accelerate, feverish, deviate, insufficiency, slightly, duration
VI. * Определите функцию слова 'that' и его значение:
1. The doctor expected that the disturbances in blood circulation would be eliminated by the administration of atropine. 2. The patient that is undergoing the course of treatment for rheumatic endocarditis will be followed up for several months. 3. That the inflammatory process would involve new areas in the lungs was clear at the onset of lobular pneumonia. 4. That child's life was saved after cardiosurgeon had made the operation eliminating the congenital heart defect. 5. Subfebrile temperature accompanied by cold perspiration may be the clinical manifestation of tuberculosis and that of chronic rheumatic endocarditis.
VII. * Выберите правильный ответ на следующие вопросы:
1. Why are patients with rheumatic endocarditis administered antibiotic treatment? (a) They are administered this treatment to eliminate the primary focus of infection; b) They are administered this treatment to control cardiovascular insufficiency.) 2. Why do patients with rheumatic endocarditis undergo aspirin and bicillin treatment in spring and autumn? (a) They undergo such treatment to improve the cardiac function; b) They undergo such treatment to prevent the recurrence of the disease.)
VIII. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What most characteristic clinical manifestations is lobular pneumonia accompanied by? 2. What treatment is administered to the patient with lobular pneumonia? 3. What is the causative agent of tuberculosis? 4. What do you know about primary tuberculosis? 5. What course is lung abscess characterized by? 6. What complaints has the patient in case of rheumatic endocarditis? 7. What treatment can you administer a patient with rheumatic endocarditis? 8. Describe a severe attack of angina pectoris. 9. What methods of performing operations are employed in cardiosurgery?
IX. 1. Прочтите текст A. 2. Выпишите английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
внешние признаки, профилактические меры, умственное перенапряжение, крепкий сон